BACKGROUND: Male gender is an independent coronary risk factor. METHOD: Long-term follow-up of 989 Danish men who underwent legal castration between 1929 and 1968. RESULTS: The legally castrated men were unmarried and belonged to social class IV and V more often than were Danish men in general. During the follow-up until 2000, 835 of the 989 (85%) castrated men died, including 148 who died of myocardial infarction. In multiple Poisson regression analyses, the men had a standardized mortality rate (SMR) for all-cause mortality of 1.30 (95% CI: 1.26-1.36) and a SMR for mortality of myocardial infarction of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.16). Thus, the castrated men had a lower proportion of deaths of myocardial infarction (148/792, 18.7% (95% CI: 16.0-21.6%)) than was expected based on the mortality rates for the Danish male population (136/608, 22.4%). The castrated men had discordant changes for the SMR for all-cause mortality and mortality of myocardial infarction whereas subgroups of the Danish population previously has been found to have concordant changes for the two SMRs. CONCLUSION: The castrated men had fewer deaths of myocardial infarction than expected, so men may not have increased risk of coronary heart disease from unphysiologically low levels of endogenous androgens.
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Glostrup University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark Copenhagen University Library, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Introduction. Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems. Aim. To obtain a population-based assessment of these matters, we studied associations between indicators of physical and mental health problems and sexual dysfunctions in Denmark. Methods. We used questionnaire data from 4,415 sexually active men (mean age 48 years) and women (mean age 45 years) who participated in a nationally representative survey in 2005. Cross-sectional associations of overall health and physical and mental health problems with sexual dysfunctions in the last year were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (OR(adj) ). Main Outcome Measures. We calculated OR(adj) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for erectile dysfunction, anorgasmia, premature ejaculation, and dyspareunia in men, for lubrication insufficiency, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, and vaginismus in women, and for sexual dysfunction and sexual difficulties overall in both sexes. Results. Sexual dysfunction was significantly more common among participants with poor self-rated health (OR(adj) 1.86, 95% CI 1.05-3.33 in men, OR(adj) 1.91, 1.08-3.37 in women). Physical health problems were significantly associated with male sexual dysfunctions (OR(adj) 1.75, 1.18-2.61), whereas mental health problems were significantly associated with female sexual dysfunctions (OR(adj) 2.59, 1.60-4.22). Conclusion. Among sexually active Danes, poor self-reported overall health is associated with increased rates of sexual dysfunction in both sexes, with physical health problems mainly affecting men's sex lives, and mental health problems being strongly associated with female sexual dysfunction. Christensen BS, Grønbaek M, Osler M, Pedersen BV, Graugaard C, and Frisch M. Associations between physical and mental health problems and sexual dysfunctions in sexually active Danes. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.
Studies have linked obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and tobacco smoking to erectile dysfunction, but the evidence linking unhealthy lifestyle factors to other sexual dysfunctions or to sexual inactivity is conflicting.
To examine associations between unhealthy lifestyle factors and sexual inactivity with a partner and four specific sexual dysfunctions in each sex.
We used nationally representative survey data from 5,552 Danish men and women aged 16-97 years in 2005. Cross-sectional associations of lifestyle factors with sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions were estimated by logistic regression-derived, confounder-adjusted odds ratios (ORs).
We calculated ORs for sexual inactivity with a partner and for sexual dysfunction and sexual difficulties overall in both sexes, for erectile dysfunction, anorgasmia, premature ejaculation, and dyspareunia in men, and for lubrication insufficiency, anorgasmia, dyspareunia, and vaginismus in women.
Obesity (body mass index [BMI]=30 kg/m(2) ) or a substantially increased waist circumference (men =102 cm; women =88 cm), physical inactivity, and, among women, tobacco smoking were each significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the last year. Among sexually active men, both underweight (BMI 21 alcoholic beverages/week), tobacco smoking, and use of hard drugs were each significantly positively associated with one or more sexual dysfunctions (ORs between 1.71 and 22.0). Among sexually active women, the only significant positive association between an unhealthy lifestyle factor and sexual dysfunction was between hashish use and anorgasmia (OR 2.85).
In both sexes, several unhealthy lifestyle factors were associated with sexual inactivity with a partner in the last year. Additionally, among sexually active participants, men with unhealthy lifestyles were significantly more likely to experience sexual dysfunctions. Considering the importance of a good sex life, our findings may be useful in attempts to promote healthier lifestyles.
Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we compare the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention with that of conventional treatment of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with early RA fulfilling the 2010 American College of Rheumatology European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria.
The study is a prospective, randomised, open label trial with blinded end point assessment and balanced randomisation (1:1) conducted in 10 outpatient clinics in Denmark. The primary end point after 5 years of follow-up is a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and cardiac revascularisation. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of patients achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
A cross-sectional national study was initiated in order to evaluate healthcare services and survivorship from the perspective of Danish adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. The purpose of the paper was to examine (Q1) to what extend Danish AYAs experienced fears and worries about dying; (Q2) with whom, if anyone, they had shared those worries; and finally, (Q3) how fears and worries influenced their daily life. The emphasis will be on Q3.
A 151-item questionnaire (including two closed- and one open-ended questions about fears of death and dying) was distributed among all 15-29-year-old Danes registered with a cancer diagnosis from 2009 to 2013. A total study population of 822 persons participated. Data was analyzed using a mixed design of descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis.
Q1: Almost 80 % of AYAs with cancer expressed some worries about death; hereof, more than half of them expressed quite a bit or very much. The analysis showed significant gender differences, whereas age and duration of disease did not have any significant impact on such thoughts. Q2: One third had not talked to anybody about his or her worries. Q3: The analysis resulted in three overall categories: fear of disease and death having little or no influence (n = 100), fear influencing in various ways (n = 215), and fear of disease and death having a substantial influence (n = 75).
The majority of AYAs had experienced fears and worries about dying, but one third of them had not talked to anybody about those thoughts. It is an important clinical point that young age does not preclude fears and worries about dying in AYAs with cancer.
Little is known about the sexual and psychosocial health of non-heterosexual Danes. Based on a large population study, the aim of this article was to compare quality-of-life-related key variables of heterosexual and non-heterosexual men and women, aged 16-66.
Cross-sectional data from the nationwide, representative Health and Morbidity Survey (n = 8496) were used to compare variables concerning both general and sexual well-being of self-identified heterosexual and non-heterosexual respondents.
Nearly twice as many non-heterosexual than heterosexual men rated their sexual life as bad or very bad (22.5% versus 12.8%), while no statistical difference was seen among women (13.6% versus 10.6%). For both genders, significantly more non-heterosexuals than heterosexuals stated that their sexual needs were not met (17.9% versus 7.7% for men and 14.8% versus 6.9% for women), and significantly more non-heterosexuals reported acts of sexual violence (8.3% versus 2.1% for men and 35.8% versus 13.0% for women). Finally, non-heterosexual respondents had contemplated suicide more than twice as often as heterosexuals (15.9% versus 7.4% for men and 19.7% versus 8.3% for women). Actual suicide attempts were roughly three times more frequent in the non-heterosexual groups (8.3% versus 2.6 % for men and 11.8% versus 4.2% for women).
Overall, non-heterosexual Danes reported higher degrees of sexual and/or psychosocial distress than heterosexuals further research is needed; but scientists, clinicians and public health workers should be aware that non-heterosexuals may pose specific health-related challenges and requirements.
Sexual dysfunctions and difficulties are common experiences that may impact importantly on the perceived quality of life, but prevalence estimates are highly sensitive to the definitions used. We used questionnaire data for 4415 sexually active Danes aged 16-95 years who participated in a national health and morbidity survey in 2005 to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and difficulties and to identify associated sociodemographic factors. Overall, 11% (95% CI, 10-13%) of men and 11% (10-13%) of women reported at least one sexual dysfunction (i.e., a frequent sexual difficulty that was perceived as a problem) in the last year, while another 68% (66-70%) of men and 69% (67-71%) of women reported infrequent or less severe sexual difficulties. Estimated overall frequencies of sexual dysfunctions among men were: premature ejaculation (7%), erectile dysfunction (5%), anorgasmia (2%), and dyspareunia (0.1%); among women: lubrication insufficiency (7%), anorgasmia (6%), dyspareunia (3%), and vaginismus (0.4%). Highest frequencies of sexual dysfunction were seen in men above age 60 years and women below age 30 years or above age 50 years. In logistic regression analysis, indicators of economic hardship in the family were positively associated with sexual dysfunctions, notably among women. In conclusion, while a majority of sexually active adults in Denmark experience sexual difficulties with their partner once in a while, approximately one in nine suffer from frequent sexual difficulties that constitute a threat to their well-being. Sexual dysfunctions seem to be more common among persons who experience economic hardship in the family.
This article reviews the 17 most robust Danish studies performed 1944-2006, in which coital debut was included as a specific variable. Women and men born before 1920 had their first sexual intercourse at the mean age of 21 and 20 years, respectively. Today, however, the median age of debut for both sexes is 16 years. The decrease in coital debut age culminated in the late 1960s, and no major changes have since occurred. Early debut is linked to sexual risk-taking and sexually transmitted infections. One fourth of current Danish adolescents do not use any protection at their sexual debut, and strengthened preventive measures are still needed.