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Airborne particulate matter from primarily geologic, non-industrial sources at levels below National Ambient Air Quality Standards is associated with outpatient visits for asthma and quick-relief medication prescriptions among children less than 20 years old enrolled in Medicaid in Anchorage, Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80178
Source
Environ Res. 2007 Mar;103(3):397-404
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Chimonas Marc-Andre R
Gessner Bradford D
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. mchimonas@msn.com
Source
Environ Res. 2007 Mar;103(3):397-404
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alaska - epidemiology
Ambulatory Care - statistics & numerical data
Anti-Asthmatic Agents - therapeutic use
Asthma - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Medicaid
Models, Statistical
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - analysis - standards
Abstract
In Anchorage, Alaska, particulates with aerodynamic diameter or = 34 micro g/m(3). A significant 18.1% increase (RR: 1.181, 95% CI: 1.010-1.381) in the rate of quick-relief medication prescriptions occurred during days with PM(10) of 34-60 micro g/m(3), and a 28.8% increase (RR: 1.288, 95% CI: 1.026-1.619) occurred during days with PM(10) > or = 61 micro g/m(3). Similar results for outpatient asthma visits and quick-relief medication occurred in weekly models. There were no significant associations with PM(2.5) in either daily or weekly models. These subtle but statistically significant associations suggest that non-industrial, geologic sources of PM(10) may have measurable health effects at levels below current national standards.
PubMed ID
17049511 View in PubMed
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Asthma is associated with preterm birth but not with small for gestational age status among a population-based cohort of Medicaid-enrolled children <10 years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83384
Source
Thorax. 2007 Mar;62(3):231-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Gessner Bradford D
Chimonas Marc-Andre R
Author Affiliation
Alaska Division of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, 3601 C Street, Suite 540, PO Box 240249, Anchorage, Alaska 99524, USA. Gessner@health.state.ak.us
Source
Thorax. 2007 Mar;62(3):231-6
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age - physiology
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Pregnancy
Premature Birth
Risk factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Few population-based studies have evaluated the association between birth weight or gestation and subsequent clinically significant asthma. METHODS: Birth records of 37 349 Alaska residents or =5 years of age, the adjusted OR for developing asthma decreased by 3.4% (95% CI -2.8 to 9.8) and 3.7% (95% CI -2.0 to 9.2) per additional week of gestation for those without and with lower respiratory tract infection, respectively. Among all children with asthma, the adjusted OR for hospitalisation due to asthma decreased by 6.9% (95% CI 2.1 to 11.5) for each additional week of gestational age. Small for gestational age status was not significantly associated with asthma outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm birth but not small for gestational age status predicted subsequent asthma outcomes. Adverse effects of preterm birth on asthma outcomes persist beyond age 5 years.
PubMed ID
17040936 View in PubMed
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Passenger behaviors associated with norovirus infection on board a cruise ship--Alaska, May to June 2004.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86344
Source
J Travel Med. 2008 May-Jun;15(3):177-83
Publication Type
Article
Author
Chimonas Marc-Andre R
Vaughan George H
Andre Zandra
Ames Jaret T
Tarling Grant A
Beard Suzanne
Widdowson Marc-Alain
Cramer Elaine
Author Affiliation
Section of Epidemiology, Division of Public Health, State of Alaska, Anchorage, AK, USA. mchimonas@msn.com
Source
J Travel Med. 2008 May-Jun;15(3):177-83
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease - epidemiology
Adult
Aged
Alaska
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - psychology
Diarrhea - epidemiology - psychology
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Female
Food Contamination - prevention & control
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - psychology
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Ships
Travel - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
BACKGROUND: During May 2004, the Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) investigated an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis on board a cruise ship sailing in Alaska waters. The objectives were to identify a common food item source and explore behavioral risk factors for person-to-person transmission among passengers. METHODS: A case was defined as three or more episodes of loose stools within 24 hours or two or fewer episodes of loose stools accompanied by one or more episodes of vomiting. Vomitus and stool samples from affected passengers were tested for norovirus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Environmental health officers performed an environmental investigation following VSP protocol. Questionnaires about food items consumed and behavioral risk factors were placed in cabin mailboxes (n = 2,018). A case-control study design using multivariable logistic regression tested associations between risk factors and disease. RESULTS: A total of 359 passengers (24.1% of respondents) met the case definition. Four of seven clinical specimens tested positive for norovirus. No significant deficiencies in environmental health practices were identified, and no meal servings were associated with disease. Having a cabin mate sick with diarrhea or vomiting [odds ratio (OR): 3.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.80-6.44] and using a specific women's toilet that was contaminated with vomit (OR: 5.13; 95% CI = 1.40-18.78) were associated with disease. Washing hands before meals was protective (OR: 0.25; 95% CI = 0.12-0.54) against disease. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread person-to-person norovirus outbreaks can occur on board cruise ships, even with appropriate environmental health practices. Programs to prevent and control norovirus outbreaks on board cruise ships should involve strategies that disrupt person-to-person spread and emphasize hand washing.
PubMed ID
18494695 View in PubMed
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