By using statistic and linear regression methods, this paper studied the last 40 years responses of Shenyang urban tree phenology to climate warming. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between the duration of tree dormancy and the mean air temperature in winter. Appropriate cold condition was beneficial to bud break, and a significant negative correlation was observed between the outset of sprouting and the mean air temperature in winter and early spring. Leaf expansion started 15 days after sprouting, which was mainly affected by the mean air temperature in spring but had no correlation with the temperature in winter. The air temperature within 20-80 days and especially 20-40 days before flowering had a significant effect on the outset of flowering, i. e. , an increasing temperature in spring could advance the outset of flowering. Both sprouting and leaf expansion were negatively correlated with cold index (CI) , but no significant correlation was observed between the outset of flowering and CI. An increase of mean annual air temperature by 1 degree C would advance the outset of sprouting by 9 days, leaf expansion by 10 days, and outset of flowering by 5 days.
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a substantial genetic component. Susceptibility to disease has been linked with a region on chromosome 2q. METHODS: We tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in and around 13 candidate genes within the previously linked chromosome 2q region for association with rheumatoid arthritis. We then performed fine mapping of the STAT1-STAT4 region in a total of 1620 case patients with established rheumatoid arthritis and 2635 controls, all from North America. Implicated SNPs were further tested in an independent case-control series of 1529 patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and 881 controls, all from Sweden, and in a total of 1039 case patients and 1248 controls from three series of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. RESULTS: A SNP haplotype in the third intron of STAT4 was associated with susceptibility to both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. The minor alleles of the haplotype-defining SNPs were present in 27% of chromosomes of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis, as compared with 22% of those of controls (for the SNP rs7574865, P=2.81x10(-7); odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.32). The association was replicated in Swedish patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (P=0.02) and matched controls. The haplotype marked by rs7574865 was strongly associated with lupus, being present on 31% of chromosomes of case patients and 22% of those of controls (P=1.87x10(-9); odds ratio for having the risk allele in chromosomes of patients vs. those of controls, 1.55). Homozygosity of the risk allele, as compared with absence of the allele, was associated with a more than doubled risk for lupus and a 60% increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: A haplotype of STAT4 is associated with increased risk for both rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, suggesting a shared pathway for these illnesses.