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Adoptive paternal age and risk of psychosis in adoptees: a register based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119810
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47334
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Mats Ek
Susanne Wicks
Cecilia Magnusson
Christina Dalman
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. mats.ek@ki.se
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47334
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoption - psychology
Age Factors
Father-Child Relations
Humans
Logistic Models
Psychology
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in the off-spring is well established. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. In order to investigate whether the psychosocial environment associated with growing up with an aged father explains the increased risk we conducted a study of all adoptive children in Sweden from 1955-1985 (n =31 188). Their risk of developing schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis in relation to advancing age of their adoptive fathers' was examined. We found no association between risk of psychoses and advancing adoptive paternal age. There was no support of psychosocial environmental factors explaining the "paternal age effect".
Notes
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PubMed ID
23071791 View in PubMed
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The age- and sex-specific occurrence of bothersome neck pain in the general population--results from the Stockholm public health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120422
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:185
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Eva Skillgate
Cecilia Magnusson
Michael Lundberg
Johan Hallqvist
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, Stockholm, SE-17177, Sweden. Eva.Skillgate@ki.se
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:185
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neck Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Public Health - methods - trends
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Neck pain is very common but the occurrence of bothersome neck pain is not well described. Therefore our objective was to report on the prevalence and incidence of, as well as the rate of recovery from, bothersome neck pain in men and women of different ages in the general population.
We used data from a recently conducted population-based cohort study, comprising 23,794 individuals in Stockholm County, Sweden. Study participants were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire in 2002/2003 and 2007, and information on episodes of neck pain was gathered at baseline and at follow-up. We then measured bothersome neck pain in 2005 and 2006 retrospectively in 2007 using the follow-up questionnaire.
The one-year prevalence of bothersome neck pain for at least seven consecutive days was 25% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24-25) among women and 16% (95% CI: 15-16) among men, peaking in individuals aged 30-59 years. The one-year incidence proportion of bothersome neck pain was 7% (95% CI: 6-7) among women, and 4% (95% CI: 4-5) among men. Women recovered more infrequently than men. The one-year incidence proportion of recovery (of at least one year duration) was 11% (95% CI: 10-12) among women and 14% (95% CI: 12-16) among men.
Bothersome neck pain is most common in middle-aged individuals. Women are more likely than men to have and to develop bothersome neck pain, and less likely to recover from such pain. Younger men and women have a higher incidence, but recover more often from bothersome neck pain than older individuals.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23006655 View in PubMed
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The association between birth by cesarean section and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of 339,451 Swedish males.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311263
Source
Sci Rep. 2020 10 29; 10(1):18661
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-29-2020
Author
Lucas D Ekstrom
Viktor H Ahlqvist
Margareta Persson
Cecilia Magnusson
Daniel Berglind
Author Affiliation
Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. lucas.ekstrom@ki.se.
Source
Sci Rep. 2020 10 29; 10(1):18661
Date
10-29-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cardiorespiratory fitness
Cesarean Section
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Pregnancy
Sweden
Abstract
Birth by cesarean section is increasing worldwide and associates with offspring morbidities capable of adversely impacting cardiorespiratory fitness later in life. Whether birth by cesarean section associates with lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness later in life is unknown and is of interest to public health. Four Swedish national registers were linked to follow 339,451 singleton males, born between 1973-1987 until December 31 2005, for Watt-maximum achieved on a cycle ergometer test at conscription into the Swedish military. Main exposure was birth by cesarean section which was compared to vaginal birth. A sub-population of 45,999 males born between 1982-1987 was identified to explore differentiated associations between elective and non-elective cesarean section with Watt-maximum. Within-family analyses of 34,252 families with 70,632 biological male siblings, who conscripted during the study period, were performed to explore the role of familial confounding on Watt-maximum. Swedish males born by cesarean section achieved lower mean Watt-maximum (- 2.32 W, 95%C.I. - 2.90 to - 1.75) and displayed excess odds of low cardiorespiratory fitness (aOR?=?1.08, 95%C.I. 1.05 to 1.11) at conscription in the eighteenth life-year compared to males born vaginally after adjusting for birth characteristics, maternal morbidities and parental socioeconomic position. In the sub-population, males born 1982-1987, there was a greater negative association of elective cesarean section with cardiorespiratory fitness (- 4.42 W, 95%C.I. - 6.27 to - 2.57, p?
PubMed ID
33122786 View in PubMed
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Associations Between Maternal Infection During Pregnancy, Childhood Infections, and the Risk of Subsequent Psychotic Disorder--A Swedish Cohort Study of Nearly 2 Million Individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276380
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2016 Jan;42(1):125-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Åsa Blomström
Håkan Karlsson
Renee Gardner
Lena Jörgensen
Cecilia Magnusson
Christina Dalman
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2016 Jan;42(1):125-33
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child of Impaired Parents - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Infection - epidemiology
Male
Mothers - psychology
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Recent studies question whether the risk for psychotic disorder associated with prenatal exposure to infection are due to infections per se, or to shared susceptibility of both infections and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the potential link between prenatal infection and serious infections during childhood, another alleged risk factor for psychotic disorder, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal infections during pregnancy in context of parental psychiatric disorders and subsequent childhood infections.
All children born in Sweden 1978-1997 were linked to the National Patient Register. Hazard ratios of nonaffective psychosis were estimated in relation to maternal infection during pregnancy and odds ratios of childhood infection were calculated in relation to maternal infection during pregnancy. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) estimated biological synergism between parental psychiatric disorder and maternal infection during pregnancy, and between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood infection.
Maternal infection during pregnancy was not statistically significantly associated with offspring psychosis (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.27). However, maternal infection during pregnancy and maternal psychiatric disorders acted synergistically in offspring psychosis development (RERI 1.33, 95% CI 0.27-2.38). Maternal infection during pregnancy increased the risk of offspring childhood infections (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.45-1.54). These 2 factors also interacted in psychosis development (RERI 0.63, 95% CI 0.12-1.14).
Among mothers with a history of psychiatric disease, infection during pregnancy increases the risk of psychosis in offspring. Maternal infections during pregnancy appear to contribute to the risk of childhood infections, which together render the child more vulnerable to psychosis development.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26303935 View in PubMed
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Associations of Parental Depression With Child School Performance at Age 16 Years in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275554
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;73(3):239-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Hanyang Shen
Cecilia Magnusson
Dheeraj Rai
Michael Lundberg
Félice Lê-Scherban
Christina Dalman
Brian K Lee
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;73(3):239-46
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Depression - diagnosis - epidemiology
Fathers - psychology
Female
Humans
Infant
Learning
Male
Middle Aged
Mothers - psychology
Parents - psychology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Depression is a common cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. Parental depression is associated with early-life child neurodevelopmental, behavioral, emotional, mental, and social problems. More studies are needed to explore the link between parental depression and long-term child outcomes.
To examine the associations of parental depression with child school performance at the end of compulsory education (approximately age 16 years).
Parental depression diagnoses (based on the International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision [ICD-8], International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9], and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision [ICD-10]) in inpatient records from 1969 onward, outpatient records beginning in 2001, and school grades at the end of compulsory education were collected for all children born from 1984 to 1994 in Sweden. The final analytic sample size was 1,124,162 biological children. We examined the associations of parental depression during different periods (before birth, after birth, and during child ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-16 years, as well as any time before the child's final year of compulsory schooling) with the final school grades. Linear regression models adjusted for various child and parent characteristics. The dates of the analysis were January to November 2015.
Decile of school grades at the end of compulsory education (range, 1-10, with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest).
The study cohort comprised 1,124,162 children, of whom 48.9% were female. Maternal depression and paternal depression at any time before the final compulsory school year were associated with worse school performance. After covariate adjustment, these associations decreased to -0.45 (95% CI, -0.48 to -0.42) and -0.40 (-0.43 to -0.37) lower deciles, respectively. These effect sizes are similarly as large as the observed difference in school performance between the lowest and highest quintiles of family income but approximately one-third of the observed difference between maternal education of 9 or less vs more than 12 years. Both maternal depression and paternal depression at different periods (before birth, after birth, and during child ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-16 years) generally were associated with worse school performance. Child sex modified the associations of maternal depression with school performance such that maternal depression had a larger negative influence on child school performance for girls compared with boys.
Diagnoses of parental depression throughout a child's life were associated with worse school performance at age 16 years. Our results suggest that diagnoses of parental depression may have a far-reaching effect on an important aspect of child development, with implications for future life course outcomes.
Notes
Comment In: JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Mar;73(3):197-826841851
Comment In: BMJ. 2016;352:i67526847373
PubMed ID
26842307 View in PubMed
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Autism and Convictions for Violent Crimes: Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291468
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Jun; 56(6):491-497.e2
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Ragini Heeramun
Cecilia Magnusson
Clara Hellner Gumpert
Sven Granath
Michael Lundberg
Christina Dalman
Dheeraj Rai
Author Affiliation
Avon and Wiltshire Partnership National Health Service Mental Health Trust, Bristol, UK.
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Jun; 56(6):491-497.e2
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Autistic Disorder - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Conduct Disorder
Crime - psychology
Criminals - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Violence - psychology
Abstract
Recent systematic reviews have highlighted that the relationship between autism and violent offending is still unclear, but some cases have received extensive media scrutiny. We investigated whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes, and studied the associated risk and protective factors.
We analyzed data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a total population-based record-linkage cohort in Stockholm County comprising 295,734 individuals followed up between 15 and 27 years of age. Of these, 5,739 individuals had a recorded autism diagnosis. The main outcome measure was a conviction for violent crimes identified using the Swedish National Crime Register.
Individuals with autism, particularly those without intellectual disability, initially appeared to have a higher risk of violent offending (adjusted relative risk = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.23-1.58). However, these associations markedly attenuated after co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or conduct disorder were taken into account (adjusted relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.97). Among individuals with autism, male sex and psychiatric conditions were the strongest predictors of violent criminality, along with parental criminal and psychiatric history and socioeconomic characteristics. There was some evidence that a delayed diagnosis of autism was associated with a greater risk of violent crime. Better school performance and intellectual disability appeared to be protective.
An initially observed association between autism and violent crimes at a population level was explained by comorbidity with ADHD and conduct disorder. Better understanding and management of comorbid psychopathology in autism may potentially help preventive action against offending behaviors in people with autism.
PubMed ID
28545754 View in PubMed
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Autism spectrum disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: design, prevalence and validity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121399
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41280
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Selma Idring
Dheeraj Rai
Henrik Dal
Christina Dalman
Harald Sturm
Eric Zander
Brian K Lee
Eva Serlachius
Cecilia Magnusson
Author Affiliation
Division of Public Health Epidemiology, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Selma.idrizbegovic@ki.se
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41280
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Intellectual Disability - epidemiology
Male
Prevalence
Reproducibility of Results
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity.
The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0-17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001-2007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study.
The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2-11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0-44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0-98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2-95.8) of affected twins.
Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22911770 View in PubMed
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Brief report: maternal smoking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128717
Source
J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Sep;42(9):2000-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Brian K Lee
Renee M Gardner
Henrik Dal
Anna Svensson
Maria Rosaria Galanti
Dheeraj Rai
Christina Dalman
Cecilia Magnusson
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA. bklee@drexel.edu
Source
J Autism Dev Disord. 2012 Sep;42(9):2000-5
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - etiology
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Registries
Risk
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is suggested as a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous epidemiological studies of this topic have yielded mixed findings. We performed a case-control study of 3,958 ASD cases and 38,983 controls nested in a large register-based cohort in Sweden. ASD case status was measured using a multisource case ascertainment system. In adjusted results, we found that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of ASD regardless of presence or absence of comorbid intellectual disability. Apparent associations were attributable to confounding by sociodemographic characteristics of parents such as education, income, and occupation.
PubMed ID
22173844 View in PubMed
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Changes in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 2001-2011: findings from the Stockholm youth cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268791
Source
J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Jun;45(6):1766-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Selma Idring
Michael Lundberg
Harald Sturm
Christina Dalman
Clara Gumpert
Dheeraj Rai
Brian K Lee
Cecilia Magnusson
Source
J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Jun;45(6):1766-73
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Autism Spectrum Disorder - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
In a record-linkage study in Stockholm, Sweden, the year 2011 prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was found to be 0.40, 1.74, 2.46, and 1.76% among 0-5, 6-12, 13-17, and 18-27 year olds, respectively. The corresponding proportion of cases with a recorded diagnosis of intellectual disability was 17.4, 22.1, 26.1 and 29.4%. Between 2001 and 2011, ASD prevalence increased almost 3.5 fold among children aged 2-17 years. The increase was mainly accounted for by an eightfold increase of ASD without intellectual disability (from 0.14 to 1.10 %), while the prevalence of ASD with intellectual disability increased only slightly (from 0.28 to 0.34%). The increase in ASD prevalence is likely contributed to by extrinsic factors such as increased awareness and diagnostics.
PubMed ID
25475364 View in PubMed
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