The association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in the off-spring is well established. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. In order to investigate whether the psychosocial environment associated with growing up with an aged father explains the increased risk we conducted a study of all adoptive children in Sweden from 1955-1985 (n =31 188). Their risk of developing schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis in relation to advancing age of their adoptive fathers' was examined. We found no association between risk of psychoses and advancing adoptive paternal age. There was no support of psychosocial environmental factors explaining the "paternal age effect".
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Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Sep;159(9):1591-212202282
Neck pain is very common but the occurrence of bothersome neck pain is not well described. Therefore our objective was to report on the prevalence and incidence of, as well as the rate of recovery from, bothersome neck pain in men and women of different ages in the general population.
We used data from a recently conducted population-based cohort study, comprising 23,794 individuals in Stockholm County, Sweden. Study participants were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire in 2002/2003 and 2007, and information on episodes of neck pain was gathered at baseline and at follow-up. We then measured bothersome neck pain in 2005 and 2006 retrospectively in 2007 using the follow-up questionnaire.
The one-year prevalence of bothersome neck pain for at least seven consecutive days was 25% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24-25) among women and 16% (95% CI: 15-16) among men, peaking in individuals aged 30-59 years. The one-year incidence proportion of bothersome neck pain was 7% (95% CI: 6-7) among women, and 4% (95% CI: 4-5) among men. Women recovered more infrequently than men. The one-year incidence proportion of recovery (of at least one year duration) was 11% (95% CI: 10-12) among women and 14% (95% CI: 12-16) among men.
Bothersome neck pain is most common in middle-aged individuals. Women are more likely than men to have and to develop bothersome neck pain, and less likely to recover from such pain. Younger men and women have a higher incidence, but recover more often from bothersome neck pain than older individuals.
Birth by cesarean section is increasing worldwide and associates with offspring morbidities capable of adversely impacting cardiorespiratory fitness later in life. Whether birth by cesarean section associates with lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness later in life is unknown and is of interest to public health. Four Swedish national registers were linked to follow 339,451 singleton males, born between 1973-1987 until December 31 2005, for Watt-maximum achieved on a cycle ergometer test at conscription into the Swedish military. Main exposure was birth by cesarean section which was compared to vaginal birth. A sub-population of 45,999 males born between 1982-1987 was identified to explore differentiated associations between elective and non-elective cesarean section with Watt-maximum. Within-family analyses of 34,252 families with 70,632 biological male siblings, who conscripted during the study period, were performed to explore the role of familial confounding on Watt-maximum. Swedish males born by cesarean section achieved lower mean Watt-maximum (- 2.32 W, 95%C.I. - 2.90 to - 1.75) and displayed excess odds of low cardiorespiratory fitness (aOR?=?1.08, 95%C.I. 1.05 to 1.11) at conscription in the eighteenth life-year compared to males born vaginally after adjusting for birth characteristics, maternal morbidities and parental socioeconomic position. In the sub-population, males born 1982-1987, there was a greater negative association of elective cesarean section with cardiorespiratory fitness (- 4.42 W, 95%C.I. - 6.27 to - 2.57, p?
Recent studies question whether the risk for psychotic disorder associated with prenatal exposure to infection are due to infections per se, or to shared susceptibility of both infections and psychiatric disorders. Moreover, the potential link between prenatal infection and serious infections during childhood, another alleged risk factor for psychotic disorder, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal infections during pregnancy in context of parental psychiatric disorders and subsequent childhood infections.
All children born in Sweden 1978-1997 were linked to the National Patient Register. Hazard ratios of nonaffective psychosis were estimated in relation to maternal infection during pregnancy and odds ratios of childhood infection were calculated in relation to maternal infection during pregnancy. Relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) estimated biological synergism between parental psychiatric disorder and maternal infection during pregnancy, and between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood infection.
Maternal infection during pregnancy was not statistically significantly associated with offspring psychosis (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.27). However, maternal infection during pregnancy and maternal psychiatric disorders acted synergistically in offspring psychosis development (RERI 1.33, 95% CI 0.27-2.38). Maternal infection during pregnancy increased the risk of offspring childhood infections (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.45-1.54). These 2 factors also interacted in psychosis development (RERI 0.63, 95% CI 0.12-1.14).
Among mothers with a history of psychiatric disease, infection during pregnancy increases the risk of psychosis in offspring. Maternal infections during pregnancy appear to contribute to the risk of childhood infections, which together render the child more vulnerable to psychosis development.
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Depression is a common cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. Parental depression is associated with early-life child neurodevelopmental, behavioral, emotional, mental, and social problems. More studies are needed to explore the link between parental depression and long-term child outcomes.
To examine the associations of parental depression with child school performance at the end of compulsory education (approximately age 16 years).
Parental depression diagnoses (based on the International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision [ICD-8], International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9], and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision [ICD-10]) in inpatient records from 1969 onward, outpatient records beginning in 2001, and school grades at the end of compulsory education were collected for all children born from 1984 to 1994 in Sweden. The final analytic sample size was 1,124,162 biological children. We examined the associations of parental depression during different periods (before birth, after birth, and during child ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-16 years, as well as any time before the child's final year of compulsory schooling) with the final school grades. Linear regression models adjusted for various child and parent characteristics. The dates of the analysis were January to November 2015.
Decile of school grades at the end of compulsory education (range, 1-10, with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest).
The study cohort comprised 1,124,162 children, of whom 48.9% were female. Maternal depression and paternal depression at any time before the final compulsory school year were associated with worse school performance. After covariate adjustment, these associations decreased to -0.45 (95% CI, -0.48 to -0.42) and -0.40 (-0.43 to -0.37) lower deciles, respectively. These effect sizes are similarly as large as the observed difference in school performance between the lowest and highest quintiles of family income but approximately one-third of the observed difference between maternal education of 9 or less vs more than 12 years. Both maternal depression and paternal depression at different periods (before birth, after birth, and during child ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-16 years) generally were associated with worse school performance. Child sex modified the associations of maternal depression with school performance such that maternal depression had a larger negative influence on child school performance for girls compared with boys.
Diagnoses of parental depression throughout a child's life were associated with worse school performance at age 16 years. Our results suggest that diagnoses of parental depression may have a far-reaching effect on an important aspect of child development, with implications for future life course outcomes.
Recent systematic reviews have highlighted that the relationship between autism and violent offending is still unclear, but some cases have received extensive media scrutiny. We investigated whether autism is associated with convictions for violent crimes, and studied the associated risk and protective factors.
We analyzed data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort, a total population-based record-linkage cohort in Stockholm County comprising 295,734 individuals followed up between 15 and 27 years of age. Of these, 5,739 individuals had a recorded autism diagnosis. The main outcome measure was a conviction for violent crimes identified using the Swedish National Crime Register.
Individuals with autism, particularly those without intellectual disability, initially appeared to have a higher risk of violent offending (adjusted relative risk = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.23-1.58). However, these associations markedly attenuated after co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or conduct disorder were taken into account (adjusted relative risk = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.97). Among individuals with autism, male sex and psychiatric conditions were the strongest predictors of violent criminality, along with parental criminal and psychiatric history and socioeconomic characteristics. There was some evidence that a delayed diagnosis of autism was associated with a greater risk of violent crime. Better school performance and intellectual disability appeared to be protective.
An initially observed association between autism and violent crimes at a population level was explained by comorbidity with ADHD and conduct disorder. Better understanding and management of comorbid psychopathology in autism may potentially help preventive action against offending behaviors in people with autism.
Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity.
The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0-17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001-2007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study.
The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2-11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0-44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0-98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2-95.8) of affected twins.
Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further.
Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is suggested as a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous epidemiological studies of this topic have yielded mixed findings. We performed a case-control study of 3,958 ASD cases and 38,983 controls nested in a large register-based cohort in Sweden. ASD case status was measured using a multisource case ascertainment system. In adjusted results, we found that maternal smoking during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of ASD regardless of presence or absence of comorbid intellectual disability. Apparent associations were attributable to confounding by sociodemographic characteristics of parents such as education, income, and occupation.
In a record-linkage study in Stockholm, Sweden, the year 2011 prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was found to be 0.40, 1.74, 2.46, and 1.76% among 0-5, 6-12, 13-17, and 18-27 year olds, respectively. The corresponding proportion of cases with a recorded diagnosis of intellectual disability was 17.4, 22.1, 26.1 and 29.4%. Between 2001 and 2011, ASD prevalence increased almost 3.5 fold among children aged 2-17 years. The increase was mainly accounted for by an eightfold increase of ASD without intellectual disability (from 0.14 to 1.10 %), while the prevalence of ASD with intellectual disability increased only slightly (from 0.28 to 0.34%). The increase in ASD prevalence is likely contributed to by extrinsic factors such as increased awareness and diagnostics.