Secondary prevention is an important component of a structured rehabilitation programme following a cardiac event. Comprehensive programmes have been developed in many European countries, the vast majority of which are hospital based. In Sweden, all patients with cardiac disease are also given the opportunity to participate in secondary prevention activities arranged by the National Association for Heart and Lung Patients [The Heart & Lung School (HL)]. The aim of this 3-year longitudinal study was to compare persons who attended the HL after a cardiac event and those who declined participation, with regard to health aspects, life situation, social network and support, clinical data, rehospitalisation and mortality. Totally 220 patients were included in the study. The patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire on four occasions, in addition to visiting a health care center for physical examination. After 3 years, 160 persons were still participating, 35 of whom attended the HL. The results show that persons who participated in the HL exercised more regularly, smoked less and had a denser network as well as more social support from nonfamily members than the comparison groups. This study contributes to increased knowledge among healthcare professionals, politicians and decision makers about peer support groups as a support strategy after a cardiac event.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a traumatic health event and at the same time a transition of vital importance in human life. The purpose of this study was to elucidate recovery patterns after myocardial infarction with regard to the content of patients' experiences. The study used a descriptive design and a qualitative method. Interviews with 16 men and women were performed, and data were subjected to a thematic content analysis. The recovery process had a pattern of ability, restraints, and reorientation. Through self-help and help from others, the mutual sharing of burdens, and clarifying restraints to recovery, the recovery process progressed toward reorientation. New values and motivation for change, as well as a new balance within the self and relationships were found. The MI had been integrated into life and, through the recovery process, patients' attitudes were better focused, leading to an enhanced quality of life.
The trend within the Swedish healthcare system is to reduce the duration of hospital care. This means that a patient who is discharged to their home after critical illness is highly likely to be functionally impaired, and therefore, requires care-giving assistance from a family member. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model with regard to relatives' coping when faced with the situation of having an adult next-of-kin recovering at home after critical illness. The design incorporated grounded theory methodology. Four coping strategies exhibiting different characteristics were identified: volunteering, accepting, modulating and sacrificing. Factors determining the choice of coping strategy were the physical and psychological status of the relative, previous experience of ICU-care and the psychological status of the patient. The theoretical model described in this article can contribute to expanding healthcare professionals' understanding of the coping strategies of relatives during recovery, but also provide inspiration for social action to be taken.
To describe overweight persons' experiences with weight reduction and participation in the dietary advice on prescription.
Approximately 20% of overweight individuals are able to successfully lose weight. Experiences from earlier weight reduction programmes indicate that those who succeed typically manage to avoid overeating to handle stress and have high motivation to lose weight. Those who fail have low self-control and engage in negative health behaviours such as eating when experiencing negative emotions and stress.
The study used a descriptive qualitative design and was conducted at a Primary Health Care Centre in south-west Sweden.
The first nineteen study participants who completed the weight reduction programme in two years responded in writing to five open questions about their experiences with the programme. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis.
The participants appreciated the face-to-face meetings with the nurse because they felt seen and listened to during these sessions. They also felt their life situations and self-discipline had an impact on how well they were able to follow the programme. Dietary advice on prescription advice was considered to be helpful for achieving behavioural changes and losing weight. People who succeeded in sustainably losing weight described the importance of support from partners or close friends.
To achieve sustainable weight reduction, it is important to individualise the programme in order to address each person's life situation and the unique difficulties they may encounter.
Motivational interviewing appears to be a good technique for developing a successful relationship between the nurse and the patient. The dietary advice on prescription advice was perceived to be a good way to improve food habits and can easily be used at many Primary Health Care Centres. Patient's partners should also be offered the opportunity to participate in the programme.
The World Health Organization (WHO) European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery has called for the explicit inclusion and application of health promotion in all nursing curricula. However, research indicates that there are deficiencies in nursing education regarding health promotion in both the theoretical and practical elements of education. Insight into the experiences of European nursing students' attitudes, positive or negative, about working in health promotion may provide a clue whether health promotion will be regarded as an important task and to what extent it will have priority in different parts of Europe.
The aim of this study was to compare Italian and Swedish nursing students' attitudes towards health promotion practice on matriculation to nursing school and after a three-year nursing education, and to explore whether attitudes towards health promotion practice correlate with BMI and smoking.
The study involved students who started their nursing education in autumn 2009 (n =240). Data were collected via a questionnaire.
The results show that the Swedish students had a more positive stance on health promotion than Italian students did. After completion of a three-year nursing education programme, Italian students' attitudes on health promotion had improved, while no such development was seen in Sweden. Further, no correlation between lifestyle issues and attitudes to health promotion was found.
Health promotion in nursing education may have important influence on students' attitudes and thereby on the quantity and quality of future health promotion practice.
Health promotion practice in health care has a high priority in the endeavour to achieve equal opportunities for health and diversity in health among the population. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether there is any connection between the lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals and the lifestyle change of the population, focusing on age, gender and education level. The study is based on the data from a national population survey in Sweden in which 52 595 patients who had attended health care were interviewed by phone. The participants were asked whether healthcare professionals had raised the subject of lifestyle during the visit and whether the advice they gave had contributed to a lifestyle change. The results indicated that lifestyle issues were raised with 32.2% of those who attended health care, particularly among men, younger patients and those with a high education level. When lifestyle issues were raised, the advice contributed to 39.2% of patients making a lifestyle change, to a higher extent among men, older patients and those with a low education level. The study shows that lifestyle advice given by healthcare professionals, during both emergency and outpatient healthcare visits, is an important contributor to patients' lifestyle change.
The development of the Swedish ambulance service has resulted in three different competence levels in Swedish ambulance teams: specialist ambulance nurses, registered nurses and emergency medical technicians. A nursing scientific model developed by Peplau (Peplau, H., 1991. Interpersonal Relations in Nursing. Springer Publishing Company, New York.) breaks down the nurse-patient relationship into a number of phases: an orientation, an identification, an exploitation and a resolution phase. This model has then been adapted to the pre-hospital emergency care by Suserud (Dahlberg, K., Segesten, K., Nystr?m, M., Suserud, B.-O., Fagerberg, I., 2003. Att f?rst? v?rdvetenskap [To Understand Caring Science]. Studentlitteratur, Lund.). The purpose of this study was to explore, by direct content analysis, how the phases of the pre-hospital nurse-patient relationship described by Suserud (Dahlberg et al., 2003), emerge in 17 specialist ambulance nursing students descriptions of ambulance missions. The results show that the four phases of the pre-hospital nurse-patient relationship could be identified and each phase includes several different parts. Furthermore, the results show that the parts of each phase can vary depending on the patient's condition and the environmental circumstances of the ambulance mission. This improved understanding of the four phases of the pre-hospital nurse-patient relationship, and their parts, could be used by ambulance team members as a support during the pre-hospital caring process in ambulance missions. This new knowledge could also be used in education.
The provision of advice over the telephone in the health service has become more common in the Western world and in Sweden this task is allocated to nurses. There are several million calls a year to the medical care telephone helpline. Nurses answer the calls, provide advice and direct the flow of patients to the most appropriate treatment level. The aim of this study was to describe how nurses perceive their job of providing telephone advice to patients. Interviews with 12 nurses were analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. The nurses perceived their work as stimulating, autonomous and challenging. They also felt exposed because extensive knowledge is required and there is a risk of being criticized, as they are in a front-line position. Nurses who are responsive, determined and not anxious about their prestige can carry out the work well, provided they have a good level of self-awareness. Personal qualities and the confidence of superiors make even an exposed position with considerable requirements manageable.
All cardiac patients in Sweden are given the opportunity to participate in group activities that are arranged by the Swedish National Association for Heart and Lung Patients through a program called The Heart School. In this study, we compared persons who participated in the Heart School activities (n = 59, intervention group) with persons who declined to participate (n = 125, comparison group) with regard to their: self-rated health, life situation, social support, clinical data, rehospitalization, and mortality. Participants completed a questionnaire at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months after discharge from a hospital. They also visited a healthcare center for physical examinations. The intervention group reported more physical symptoms and a higher degree of social support. No other differences were found between the groups. Differences within groups were that the intervention group had increased their physical activities and had eventually stopped smoking. This study adds to the knowledge about the use of peer support groups as a support strategy and supports their use in long-term rehabilitation after a cardiac event.
Both internationally and nationally, the medical care help line (MCHL) is a growing operation within the healthcare field. In Sweden, approximately 5 million calls per year are processed. The service is managed by specially trained nurses.
To describe how patients' sex, age, education level and care level influenced their perceptions of care encounters with the MCHL.
A questionnaire was designed through the operationalisation of terms based on a previous interview study with MCHL callers. It was distributed to 858 callers in a region of southwest Sweden. The questionnaire was comprised of 14 visual analogue scales (VAS). Validity and reliability were determined to be acceptable by a pilot study and factor analyses.
Response frequency n = 517 (60.4 %). Three factors, interaction, service and product, emerged to describe high satisfaction with the MCHL from different perspectives. The items 'friendliness', 'respect', 'confirmation', 'accessibility' and 'simplicity' scored highest, whereas the 'joint decision-making', 'composure' and 'time' items had the lowest values.
A new questionnaire with acceptable validity and reliability was created on the basis of an interview study examining patient encounters with the MCHL. The new questionnaire may provide useful support in the education of MCHL nurses and other nurses in telephone triage. It can also be used for quality development and as a basis for further research on telephone nursing.