AbstractObjective: To evaluate early stages of atherosclerosis and predisposing factors in childhood diabetes compared to age- and sex matched healthy control subjects. Research design and Methods: All children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, aged 8-18 years in Health Region South-East in Norway were invited to participate in the study (n= 800). 40% (n= 314) agreed to participate and were compared to 118 age-matched healthy controls. Carotid artery Intima Media Thickness (cIMT) and elasticity was measured using standardized methods. Results: Mean age of the diabetic patients was 13.7 years, diabetes duration 5.5 years and HbA1c 8.4%. 97% were using intensive insulin treatment, 60% insulin pumps. Diabetic patients had more frequently elevated cIMT than healthy controls: 19.5% were above 90(th) centile of healthy controls and 13.1% above 95(th) centile (p
Markers for early identification of progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) are in demand. Chemokine CCL18, which has been linked to pulmonary inflammation, is an interesting candidate, but data have not been consistent. We aimed to assess CCL18 levels in a large, prospective, unselected SSc cohort with longitudinal, paired data sets on pulmonary function and lung fibrosis.
Sera from the Oslo University Hospital SSc cohort (n = 298) and healthy control subjects (n = 100) were analyzed for CCL18 by enzyme immunoassay. High CCL18 (>53 ng/mL) was defined using the mean value plus 2 SD in sera obtained from healthy control subjects as the cutoff.
High serum CCL18 was identified in 35% (105 of 298). Annual decline in FVC differed significantly between high and low CCL18 subsets (13.3% and 4.7%; P = .016), as did the annual progression rate of lung fibrosis (0.9% [SD, 2.9] and 0.2% [SD, 1.9]). Highest rates of annual FVC decline > 10% (21%) and annual fibrosis progression (1.2%) were seen in patients with high CCL18 and early disease ( 10% (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) and FVC
To study the risk of clinical onset of myasthenia gravis (MG) in pregnancy and during the first 6 months postpartum because an association between pregnancy or the postpartum period and the onset of autoimmune MG is widely assumed but not proven.
The design was a cross-sectional population-based cohort study of 2 MG cohorts (Norway and the Netherlands) with 1,038 healthy controls from Norway. Data were obtained on 246 women with MG (age at onset 15-45 years). Data on pregnancy, hormonal factors, and clinical symptoms were collected by a previously validated environmental MG questionnaire. Relative risk of MG onset before, during, and after pregnancy was calculated by multinomial logistic regression for Norwegian women reaching 45 years of age, adjusted for the observed distribution of person-years in the corresponding control group.
Of the included women with MG, 13 (11.5%) of the Dutch and 24 (18.0%) of the Norwegian patients had their first myasthenia symptoms during the pregnancy or postpartum period. The postpartum period was confirmed to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of MG in Norwegian women with MG (relative risk 5.5, 95% confidence interval 2.6-11.6). The risk was highest after the first childbirth.
Women have a high-risk period for the onset of clinical symptoms of MG in the postpartum period, in particular after the first childbirth. Future studies should aim at elucidating the role of the hormonal-immunological-genetic interaction in the pathogenesis of MG.
Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased mortality from cardiovascular disease, and inflammation is important in the development of atherosclerosis. Our aim was to evaluate the extent of inflammation and the influence of glycemic control in the early phases of atherosclerosis in childhood type 1 diabetes.
A population based cohort representative of all children with type 1 diabetes in Norway was studied. Diabetes patients (n = 314) were compared to healthy controls (n = 120), aged 8-18 years. Circulating levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, P-selectin, TNFa, IL-6, CRP, MCP-1, IL-18, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were measured by immunoassays.
The diabetes patients had a mean age of 13.7 (SD = 2.8) years, disease duration of 5.5 (SD = 3.4) years and HbA1c of 8.4 (SD = 1.2) % (68 mmol/mol, SD = 13.1). The levels of most of the measured markers were significantly increased in the diabetes group compared to controls. In the diabetes group, all except MCP-1 and MMP-9 were significantly correlated to HbA1c, albeit the relation to VCAM-1 was inverse. There were no significant correlations in the control group. The measured markers were only to a limited degree associated with traditional risk factors. CRP showed the most pronounced difference between diabetes patients and controls and the strongest correlation with HbA1c. The use of oral contraceptives profoundly increased CRP levels, independent of the presence of diabetes.
Our results indicate that inflammation may play an important role in the accelerated atherosclerosis in early type 1 diabetes, and that this process seems primarily driven by hyperglycemia.
Intravenous access and drug administration are included in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines despite a lack of evidence for improved outcomes. Epinephrine was an independent predictor of poor outcome in a large epidemiological study, possibly due to toxicity of the drug or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) interruptions secondary to establishing an intravenous line and drug administration.
To determine whether removing intravenous drug administration from an ACLS protocol would improve survival to hospital discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Prospective, randomized controlled trial of consecutive adult patients with out-of-hospital nontraumatic cardiac arrest treated within the emergency medical service system in Oslo, Norway, between May 1, 2003, and April 28, 2008.
Advanced cardiac life support with intravenous drug administration or ACLS without access to intravenous drug administration.
The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. The secondary outcomes were 1-year survival, survival with favorable neurological outcome, hospital admission with return of spontaneous circulation, and quality of CPR (chest compression rate, pauses, and ventilation rate).
Of 1183 patients for whom resuscitation was attempted, 851 were included; 418 patients were in the ACLS with intravenous drug administration group and 433 were in the ACLS with no access to intravenous drug administration group. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 10.5% for the intravenous drug administration group and 9.2% for the no intravenous drug administration group (P = .61), 32% vs 21%, respectively, (P
Comment In: Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 16;152(6):JC3-820231562
To describe the characteristics, outcome and predictive factors of juvenile mixed connective tissue disease (JMCTD) in a nationwide cohort of patients.
We examined 55 patients with JMCTD after a mean disease duration of 16.2 years (SD 10.0). Patients were registered according to Kasukawa's criteria. Remission criteria were defined according to those for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, plus absence of cytopenia, myositis, progressive sclerodactyly, lung and oesophageal manifestations. Organ damage was assessed with the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Damage Index and the Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index (JADI). Medical records were reviewed for early predictors for outcome, which were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Three patients developed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-two patients had continuous JMCTD; the most common manifestations were: Raynaud (100%), arthritis (94%), puffy hands (77%) and pulmonary manifestations (58%). SLE-like, systemic sclerosis (SSc)-like and polymyositis (PM)-like findings were found in 98%, 77% and 48%, respectively. Over time, SLE-like and PM-like manifestations decreased, and SSc-like findings increased. At follow-up, 35 patients (67%) had active disease and 17 (33%) were in remission. In 34 patients (65%), SLICC or JADI=1 assessments indicated organ damage. Active disease was associated with higher anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody titres at follow-up and positive rheumatoid factor (RF) at diagnosis and follow-up.
Most patients with JMCTD had active disease and organ damage after a mean follow-up of 16.2 years. Active disease was associated with higher anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody levels and positive RF. The presence of RF at diagnosis predicted persistent disease activity.
After completed anticoagulant treatment for acute VTE, both the subsequent mortality and risk of recurrent VTE are high, probably related to the frequent presence of serious disease in these patients. The aim of the study was to determine survival and recurrence in selected patients with good life-expectancy, and to evaluate risk factors.
The 323 patients were followed for median 7.4 years (range 4.1-11.9) after cessation of anticoagulation. Survival analysis and Cox-regression were used for univariate and multivariate analysis.
The cumulative incidence of survival after 5 years was 93.4%. Standardised mortality ratio was 1.42 for men and 1.28 for women. Patients without a transient risk factor prior to the index VTE were associated with higher risk of mortality compared to risk of mortality in patients with a transient risk factor (hazard ratio (HR) 2.81; 95% CI 1.40-5.62). Recurrence of VTE after 5 years was 19.0%. A persistent risk factor or a spontaneous VTE was associated with higher risk of recurrence compared to a transient risk factor (HR 2.39; 95% CI 1.44-3.95). Elevated D-dimer levels increased the risk, and immobilisation prior to the index VTE reduced the risk of recurrence. Sex, age and thrombophilia were not independent risk factors for recurrence.
Despite a low mortality rate in this selected cohort, the recurrence rate and risk factors for recurrence were similar to findings reported in unselected populations. VTE unrelated to a transient risk factor was associated with increased mortality compared to mortality in patients with a transient risk factor.
Women with bipolar disorder (BD) have a high risk of illness relapse postpartum. The risk coincides with the period when mother-infant interactions are evolving. We compared mother-infant interactions in dyads where the mothers have BD with dyads where the mothers have no mental disorder. The association between concurrent affective symptoms of BD mothers and interaction quality was investigated.
Twenty-six women with BD and 30 comparison women with infants were included. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) was used to assess maternal behaviour, infant behaviour and dyadic coordination in interactions at 3 months postpartum. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and Young Mania Rating Scale were used to assess affective symptoms of BD mothers at the time of interaction.
There were significant group differences with medium to large effect sizes (0.73-1.32) on five of six subscales within the three interactional domains. Most interactional concerns were identified in dyadic coordination. No significant associations were found between maternal symptom load and interaction quality within the BD sample. Forty-six percent of the BD mothers experienced a mood episode within 0-3?months postpartum.
The present study identified challenges for mothers with BD and their infants in "finding" each other in interaction at 3 months postpartum. If sustained, this interaction pattern may have a long-term impact on children's development. We suggest interventions specifically focusing on sensitising and supporting mothers to read infants' cues on a micro-level. This may help them to respond contingently and improve dyadic coordination and synchronicity.
SSc is a severe, heterogeneous multi-organ disease where population-based estimates on phenotypic spectrum, overall disease burden and societal impact are largely missing. Here the objective was to provide the first-ever complete national-level data on phenotype and major organ afflictions in SSc.
A stepwise strategy was applied to find and characterize every SSc patient resident in Norway from 2000 to 2012. First we identified every case in the country registered with an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code for SSc (M34). Next we manually reviewed all cases coded as M34 to determine whether they met the 1980 ACR and/or 2013 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for SSc and could be included in the Norwegian SSc cohort (Nor-SSc). Finally, all disease features from SSc onset to study end were reviewed.
The Nor-SSc cohort included 815 SSc patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 53?years, with 84% females and 77% limited cutaneous SSc. The estimated incidence increased from 4 per million in 2000 to 13 per million in 2012. We identified high cumulative frequencies of internal organ involvement, coexistence of multiple organ afflictions across disease subsets and autoantibody status and stable frequencies of pulmonary arterial hypertension across haemodynamic definitions, but indications of referral-related differences in pulmonary hypertension detection rates across the study area.
This nationwide cohort study provides new, unbiased evidence for a high disease burden in SSc patients of Caucasian descent and indicates the existence of hurdles preventing equality of assessment across the SSc population.
Consequences after Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affect the injured person's self-image and quality of life. The purpose was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) at 12 months after a TBI in patients admitted to regional trauma centres, and to evaluate the metric properties of the Norwegian version of the Quality of Life After Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) questionnaire.
Two hundred four patients with TBI of all severities were included. HRQoL at 12 months post-injury was measured by the QOLIBRI. It has a total scale and 6 subscales (satisfied with Cognition, Self, Daily Life and Autonomy and Social Relationships, and bothered by Emotions and Physical Problems). Demographic and injury related data were registered. Disability was registered by Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire, and mental health by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Descriptive statistics, internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha and Corrected Item-Total Correlations were calculated. Rasch analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were applied.
Mean age was 37.6 (SD 15.4) years; 72% were men, and 41% had higher education. Over 60% were severely injured. Mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 9.3 (SD 4.5). According to the GOSE 5.9% had severe disability, 45.5% had moderate disability, and 48.5% had good recovery at 12 months post-injury. The QOLIBRI scales had a high internal consistency (a?=?0.75-0.96), and only Physical Problems had an a?