Several studies have reported associations between restricted fetal development, as shown by birth weight or birth length, and later ischaemic heart disease (IHD). However, few studies have examined the importance of these perinatal factors when taking into account gestational age at birth, hereditary factors, sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. This study investigated the importance of perinatal risk factors for premature IHD and myocardial infarction (MI) in a large Swedish cohort.
National cohort study of 1,970,869 individuals who were live-born in Sweden in 1973 through 1992, and followed up to 2010 (ages 18-38 years).
The main outcome was IHD, and the secondary outcome was MI.
A total of 668 individuals were diagnosed with IHD in 18.8 million person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for gestational age at birth, sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and family history of IHD, low fetal growth was associated with increased risk of IHD (HR for
Previous studies have reported an association between preterm birth and elevated blood pressure in adolescence and young adulthood. These studies were based on single-day blood pressure measurements and had limited ability to estimate risk of hypertension measured over a longer period and across the full range of gestational ages. The authors conducted a national cohort study of all infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 (n = 636,552), including 28,220 born preterm (
Preterm birth is associated with gastric acid-related disorders in infancy, but no investigators have examined this association beyond early childhood. We used antisecretory medication data to explore whether preterm birth is associated with gastric acid-related disorders in young adulthood.
We conducted a national cohort study of 626,811 individuals born in Sweden in 1973 to 1979, followed up for antisecretory (proton pump inhibitor and H2-receptor antagonist) medication prescriptions from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies nationwide from 2005 to 2009 (ages 25.5-37.0 years). We excluded individuals with congenital anomalies, and examined potential confounding by other comorbidities identified on the basis of oral anti-inflammatory or corticosteroid medication prescription.
Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with antisecretory medication prescription in young adulthood. Adjusted odds ratios for =1 antisecretory medication prescription/year were 3.38 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.73-6.62) for individuals born at 22-27 weeks, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.19-1.60) for those born at 28-34 weeks, and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.32) for those born at 35-36 weeks, relative to those born full-term (37-42 weeks). Exclusion of individuals who were prescribed oral anti-inflammatory or corticosteroid medications (=1/year) had little effect on these results.
These findings suggest that low gestational age at birth may be independently associated with an increased risk of gastric acid-related disorders in young adulthood.
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Schizophrenia is associated with premature mortality, but the specific causes and pathways are unclear. The authors used outpatient and inpatient data for a national population to examine the association between schizophrenia and mortality and comorbidities.
This was a national cohort study of 6,097,834 Swedish adults, including 8,277 with schizophrenia, followed for 7 years (2003-2009) for mortality and comorbidities diagnosed in any outpatient or inpatient setting nationwide.
On average, men with schizophrenia died 15 years earlier, and women 12 years earlier, than the rest of the population, and this was not accounted for by unnatural deaths. The leading causes were ischemic heart disease and cancer. Despite having twice as many health care system contacts, schizophrenia patients had no increased risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease or cancer diagnoses, but they had an elevated mortality from ischemic heart disease (adjusted hazard ratio for women, 3.33 [95% CI=2.73-4.05]; for men, 2.20 [95% CI=1.83-2.65]) and cancer (adjusted hazard ratio for women, 1.71 [95% CI=1.38-2.10; for men, 1.44 [95% CI=1.15-1.80]). Among all people who died from ischemic heart disease or cancer, schizophrenia patients were less likely than others to have been diagnosed previously with these conditions (for ischemic heart disease, 26.3% compared with 43.7%; for cancer, 73.9% compared with 82.3%). The association between schizophrenia and mortality was stronger among women and the employed. Lack of antipsychotic treatment was also associated with elevated mortality.
Schizophrenia patients had markedly premature mortality, and the leading causes were ischemic heart disease and cancer, which appeared to be underdiagnosed. Preventive interventions should prioritize primary health care tailored to this population, including more effective risk modification and screening for cardiovascular disease and cancer.
High body mass index (BMI) and low physical fitness are risk factors for hypertension, but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions between these modifiable risk factors may help inform more effective interventions in susceptible subgroups.
To determine the interactive effects of BMI and physical fitness on the risk of hypertension in a large national cohort.
This cohort study included all 1,547,189 military conscripts in Sweden from January 1, 1969, through December 31, 1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men nationwide each year), who were followed up through December 31, 2012 (maximum age, 62 years). Data analysis was conducted August 1 through August 15, 2015.
Standardized aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and BMI measurements obtained at a military conscription examination.
Hypertension identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses.
A total of 93,035 men (6.0%) were diagnosed with hypertension in 39.7 million person-years of follow-up. High BMI and low aerobic capacity (but not muscular strength) were associated with increased risk of hypertension, independent of family history and socioeconomic factors (BMI, overweight or obese vs normal: incidence rate ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.46-2.55; P
Previous studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism in later life, but the potential effect of preterm birth, independent of foetal growth, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether preterm birth is independently associated with medically treated hypothyroidism in young adulthood.
National cohort study of 629,806 individuals born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979, including 27,935 born preterm (
High body mass index (BMI) and low physical fitness are risk factors for stroke, but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions between these modifiable risk factors can help inform preventive interventions in susceptible subgroups.
National cohort study of all 1,547,294 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97-98% of all 18-year-old males). Standardized aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and body mass index measurements were examined in relation to stroke identified from inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62 years).
Sixteen thousand nine hundred seventy-nine men were diagnosed with stroke in 39.7 million person-years of follow-up. High body mass index, low aerobic fitness, and (less strongly) low muscular fitness were associated with higher risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage, independently of family history and sociodemographic factors. High body mass index (overweight/obese vs. normal) and low aerobic capacity (lowest vs. highest tertile) had similar effect magnitudes, and their combination was associated with highest stroke risk (incidence rate ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 2.14-2.60; P?
Early-term birth (gestational age, 37-38 weeks) has been associated with increased infant mortality relative to later-term birth, but mortality beyond infancy has not been studied. We examined the association between early-term birth and mortality through young adulthood.
We conducted a national cohort study of 679,981 singleton births in Sweden in 1973-1979, followed up for all-cause and cause-specific mortality through 2008 (ages 29-36 years).
There were 10,656 deaths in 21.5 million person-years of follow-up. Among those still alive at the beginning of each age range, early-term birth relative to those born at 39-42 weeks was associated with increased mortality in the neonatal period (0-27 days: adjusted hazard ratio = 2.18 [95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.51]), postneonatal period (28-364 days: 1.66 [1.44-1.92]), early childhood (1-5 years: 1.29 [1.10-1.51]), and young adulthood (18-36 years: 1.14 [1.05-1.24]), but not in late childhood/adolescence (6-17 years: 0.97 [0.84-1.12]). In young adulthood, early-term birth was strongly associated with death from congenital anomalies and endocrine disorders, especially diabetes (2.89 [1.54-5.43]).
In this large national cohort study, early-term birth was independently associated with increased mortality in infancy, early childhood, and young adulthood. Lowest short-term and long-term mortality was among those born at 39-42 weeks.