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Hypertension, the Swedish Patient Register, and Selection Bias-Reply.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289993
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 06 01; 176(6):863
Publication Type
Letter
Comment
Date
06-01-2016
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 06 01; 176(6):863
Date
06-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Comment
Keywords
Humans
Hypertension
Registries
Selection Bias
Sweden
Notes
CommentOn: JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):210-6 PMID 26784837
CommentOn: JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Jun 1;176(6):862-3 PMID 27273487
PubMed ID
27273489 View in PubMed
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Perinatal risk factors for premature ischaemic heart disease in a Swedish national cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270809
Source
BMJ Open. 2015;5(6):e007308
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Bengt Zöller
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Casey Crump
Source
BMJ Open. 2015;5(6):e007308
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Body Height
Cohort Studies
Female
Fetal Development
Follow-Up Studies
Gestational Age
Humans
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Several studies have reported associations between restricted fetal development, as shown by birth weight or birth length, and later ischaemic heart disease (IHD). However, few studies have examined the importance of these perinatal factors when taking into account gestational age at birth, hereditary factors, sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. This study investigated the importance of perinatal risk factors for premature IHD and myocardial infarction (MI) in a large Swedish cohort.
National cohort study of 1,970,869 individuals who were live-born in Sweden in 1973 through 1992, and followed up to 2010 (ages 18-38 years).
The main outcome was IHD, and the secondary outcome was MI.
A total of 668 individuals were diagnosed with IHD in 18.8 million person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for gestational age at birth, sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and family history of IHD, low fetal growth was associated with increased risk of IHD (HR for
Notes
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PubMed ID
26038357 View in PubMed
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Interactive Effects of Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index on the Risk of Hypertension.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273847
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):210-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):210-6
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body mass index
Exercise Tolerance
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle strength
Physical Fitness
Risk
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
High body mass index (BMI) and low physical fitness are risk factors for hypertension, but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions between these modifiable risk factors may help inform more effective interventions in susceptible subgroups.
To determine the interactive effects of BMI and physical fitness on the risk of hypertension in a large national cohort.
This cohort study included all 1,547,189 military conscripts in Sweden from January 1, 1969, through December 31, 1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men nationwide each year), who were followed up through December 31, 2012 (maximum age, 62 years). Data analysis was conducted August 1 through August 15, 2015.
Standardized aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and BMI measurements obtained at a military conscription examination.
Hypertension identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses.
A total of 93,035 men (6.0%) were diagnosed with hypertension in 39.7 million person-years of follow-up. High BMI and low aerobic capacity (but not muscular strength) were associated with increased risk of hypertension, independent of family history and socioeconomic factors (BMI, overweight or obese vs normal: incidence rate ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.46-2.55; P
Notes
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Comment In: JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):217-826784456
PubMed ID
26784837 View in PubMed
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Early-term birth (37-38 weeks) and mortality in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117067
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Mar;24(2):270-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Casey Crump
Kristina Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Mar;24(2):270-6
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Term Birth
Abstract
Early-term birth (gestational age, 37-38 weeks) has been associated with increased infant mortality relative to later-term birth, but mortality beyond infancy has not been studied. We examined the association between early-term birth and mortality through young adulthood.
We conducted a national cohort study of 679,981 singleton births in Sweden in 1973-1979, followed up for all-cause and cause-specific mortality through 2008 (ages 29-36 years).
There were 10,656 deaths in 21.5 million person-years of follow-up. Among those still alive at the beginning of each age range, early-term birth relative to those born at 39-42 weeks was associated with increased mortality in the neonatal period (0-27 days: adjusted hazard ratio = 2.18 [95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.51]), postneonatal period (28-364 days: 1.66 [1.44-1.92]), early childhood (1-5 years: 1.29 [1.10-1.51]), and young adulthood (18-36 years: 1.14 [1.05-1.24]), but not in late childhood/adolescence (6-17 years: 0.97 [0.84-1.12]). In young adulthood, early-term birth was strongly associated with death from congenital anomalies and endocrine disorders, especially diabetes (2.89 [1.54-5.43]).
In this large national cohort study, early-term birth was independently associated with increased mortality in infancy, early childhood, and young adulthood. Lowest short-term and long-term mortality was among those born at 39-42 weeks.
PubMed ID
23337240 View in PubMed
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Risk of diabetes among young adults born preterm in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136124
Source
Diabetes Care. 2011 May;34(5):1109-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Casey Crump
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Diabetes Care. 2011 May;34(5):1109-13
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Male
Premature Birth - physiopathology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that preterm birth is associated with diabetes later in life. These studies have shown inconsistent results for late preterm births and have had various limitations, including the inability to evaluate diabetic outpatients or to estimate risk across the full range of gestational ages. Our objective was to determine whether preterm birth is associated with diabetes medication prescription in a national cohort of young adults.
This was a national cohort study of 630,090 infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 (including 27,953 born preterm, gestational age
Notes
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PubMed ID
21411504 View in PubMed
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Neighborhood deprivation and psychiatric medication prescription: a Swedish national multilevel study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136463
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2011 Apr;21(4):231-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Casey Crump
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Author Affiliation
Stanford Family Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94304-5765, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2011 Apr;21(4):231-7
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Anxiety Agents
Antidepressive Agents
Antipsychotic Agents
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multilevel Analysis
Odds Ratio
Psychotropic Drugs
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous studies of neighborhood deprivation and mental disorders have yielded mixed results, possibly because they were based on different substrata of the population. We conducted a national multilevel study to determine whether neighborhood deprivation is independently associated with psychiatric medication prescription in a national population.
Nationwide outpatient and inpatient psychiatric medication data were analyzed for all Swedish adults (N = 6,998,075) after 2.5 years of follow-up. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the association between neighborhood deprivation (index of education, income, unemployment, and welfare assistance) and prescription of psychiatric medications (antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, or hypnotics/sedatives), after adjusting for broadly measured individual-level sociodemographic characteristics.
For each psychiatric medication class, a monotonic trend of increasing prescription was observed by increasing level of neighborhood deprivation. The strongest associations were found for antipsychotics and anxiolytics, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.44) and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.22-1.27), respectively, comparing the highest- to the lowest-deprivation neighborhood quintiles.
These findings suggest that neighborhood deprivation is associated with psychiatric medication prescription independent of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation may affect mental health and to identify the most susceptible groups in the population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21376269 View in PubMed
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Mental disorders and vulnerability to homicidal death: Swedish nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115814
Source
BMJ. 2013;346:f557
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Casey Crump
Kristina Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, 211 Quarry Road, Suite 405, MC 5985, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1426, USA.
Source
BMJ. 2013;346:f557
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Cohort Studies
Crime Victims - statistics & numerical data
Female
Homicide - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - mortality
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Vulnerable Populations
Young Adult
Abstract
To determine the risk of people with mental disorders being victims of homicide.
National cohort study.
Sweden.
Entire adult population (n = 7,253,516).
Homicidal death during eight years of follow-up (2001-08); hazard ratios for the association between mental disorders and homicidal death, with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders; potential modifying effect of comorbid substance use.
615 homicidal deaths occurred in 54.4 million person years of follow-up. Mortality rates due to homicide (per 100,000 person years) were 2.8 among people with mental disorders compared with 1.1 in the general population. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, any mental disorder was associated with a 4.9-fold (95% confidence interval 4.0 to 6.0) risk of homicidal death, relative to people without mental disorders. Strong associations were found irrespective of age, sex, or other sociodemographic characteristics. Although the risk of homicidal death was highest among people with substance use disorders (approximately ninefold), the risk was also increased among those with personality disorders (3.2-fold), depression (2.6-fold), anxiety disorders (2.2-fold), or schizophrenia (1.8-fold) and did not seem to be explained by comorbid substance use. Sociodemographic risk factors included male sex, being unmarried, and low socioeconomic status.
In this large cohort study, people with mental disorders, including those with substance use disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, or schizophrenia, had greatly increased risks of homicidal death. Interventions to reduce violent death among people with mental disorders should tackle victimisation and homicidal death in addition to suicide and accidents, which share common risk factors.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Ment Health. 2013 Aug;16(3):6423704702
Comment In: BMJ. 2013;346:f133623462203
PubMed ID
23462204 View in PubMed
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Height, Weight, and Aerobic Fitness Level in Relation to the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299956
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2018 03 01; 187(3):417-426
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-01-2018
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Alfred and Gail Engelberg Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2018 03 01; 187(3):417-426
Date
03-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Atrial Fibrillation - epidemiology - etiology
Body Height
Body Weight
Exercise
Humans
Inpatients - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Outpatients - statistics & numerical data
Physical Fitness
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness. We conducted a national cohort study to examine interactions between height or weight and level of aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximal age, 62 years). Increased height, weight, and aerobic fitness level (but not muscular strength) at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level (for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs. the lowest, relative excess risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.62; ratio of hazard ratios = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.65). High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least 186 cm (6 feet, 1 inch) tall but were protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk (for the highest tertiles vs. the lowest, adjusted hazard ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.80). These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups.
PubMed ID
28641376 View in PubMed
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Preterm birth and risk of chronic kidney disease from childhood into mid-adulthood: national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300009
Source
BMJ. 2019 05 01; 365:l1346
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-01-2019
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health and of Population Health Science and Policy, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1077, New York, NY 10029, USA casey.crump@mssm.edu.
Source
BMJ. 2019 05 01; 365:l1346
Date
05-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Early Diagnosis
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - epidemiology
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate the relation between preterm birth (gestational age
PubMed ID
31043374 View in PubMed
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Low stress resilience in late adolescence and risk of hypertension in adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274972
Source
Heart. 2016 Apr;102(7):541-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Source
Heart. 2016 Apr;102(7):541-7
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological - physiology
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Psychological Techniques
Resilience, Psychological
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Greater blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress has been associated with higher risk of developing hypertension. We hypothesised that low stress resilience based on psychological assessment early in life is associated with hypertension in adulthood.
National cohort study of 1,547,182 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97-98% of all 18-year-old males) without prior history of hypertension, who underwent standardised psychological assessment by trained psychologists for stress resilience (1-9 scale), and were followed up for hypertension identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses during 1969-2012 (maximum age 62).
93,028 men were diagnosed with hypertension in 39.4 million person-years of follow-up. Adjusting for body mass index (BMI), family history and socioeconomic factors, low stress resilience at age 18 was associated with increased risk of hypertension in adulthood (lowest vs highest quintile: HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.40 to 1.46; p
Notes
Cites: Psychosom Med. 2001 Sep-Oct;63(5):737-4311573021
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