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Hypertension, the Swedish Patient Register, and Selection Bias-Reply.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289993
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 06 01; 176(6):863
Publication Type
Letter
Comment
Date
06-01-2016
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 06 01; 176(6):863
Date
06-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Comment
Keywords
Humans
Hypertension
Registries
Selection Bias
Sweden
Notes
CommentOn: JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):210-6 PMID 26784837
CommentOn: JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Jun 1;176(6):862-3 PMID 27273487
PubMed ID
27273489 View in PubMed
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Perinatal risk factors for premature ischaemic heart disease in a Swedish national cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270809
Source
BMJ Open. 2015;5(6):e007308
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Bengt Zöller
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Casey Crump
Source
BMJ Open. 2015;5(6):e007308
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Body Height
Cohort Studies
Female
Fetal Development
Follow-Up Studies
Gestational Age
Humans
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Several studies have reported associations between restricted fetal development, as shown by birth weight or birth length, and later ischaemic heart disease (IHD). However, few studies have examined the importance of these perinatal factors when taking into account gestational age at birth, hereditary factors, sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. This study investigated the importance of perinatal risk factors for premature IHD and myocardial infarction (MI) in a large Swedish cohort.
National cohort study of 1,970,869 individuals who were live-born in Sweden in 1973 through 1992, and followed up to 2010 (ages 18-38 years).
The main outcome was IHD, and the secondary outcome was MI.
A total of 668 individuals were diagnosed with IHD in 18.8 million person-years of follow-up. After adjusting for gestational age at birth, sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and family history of IHD, low fetal growth was associated with increased risk of IHD (HR for
Notes
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PubMed ID
26038357 View in PubMed
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Risk of hypertension among young adults who were born preterm: a Swedish national study of 636,000 births.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101852
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Apr 1;173(7):797-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2011
Author
Casey Crump
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Stanford Family Medicine, 211 Quarry Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304-5765, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Apr 1;173(7):797-803
Date
Apr-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antihypertensive Agents - administration & dosage
Confidence Intervals
Female
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Physician's Practice Patterns - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Premature Birth
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Previous studies have reported an association between preterm birth and elevated blood pressure in adolescence and young adulthood. These studies were based on single-day blood pressure measurements and had limited ability to estimate risk of hypertension measured over a longer period and across the full range of gestational ages. The authors conducted a national cohort study of all infants born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979 (n = 636,552), including 28,220 born preterm (
PubMed ID
21320866 View in PubMed
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Gestational age at birth and mortality in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131142
Source
JAMA. 2011 Sep 21;306(11):1233-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-21-2011
Author
Casey Crump
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, 900 Blake Wilbur Dr, Stanford, CA 94304-2205, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
JAMA. 2011 Sep 21;306(11):1233-40
Date
Sep-21-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Life expectancy
Male
Mortality - trends
Premature Birth
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant mortality in developed countries, but the association between gestational age at birth and mortality in adulthood remains unknown.
To examine the association between gestational age at birth and mortality in young adulthood.
National cohort study of 674,820 individuals born as singletons in Sweden in 1973 through 1979 who survived to age 1 year, including 27,979 born preterm (gestational age
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Med. 2012 Aug;17(4):121-222193565
Comment In: JAMA. 2012 Jan 4;307(1):32; author reply 32-322215157
PubMed ID
21934056 View in PubMed
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Gestational age at birth and risk of gastric acid-related disorders in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126537
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2012 Apr;22(4):233-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Casey Crump
Marilyn A Winkleby
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2012 Apr;22(4):233-8
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Gastric Acid - metabolism
Gastroesophageal Reflux - epidemiology - metabolism
Gestational Age
Humans
Male
Premature Birth - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Preterm birth is associated with gastric acid-related disorders in infancy, but no investigators have examined this association beyond early childhood. We used antisecretory medication data to explore whether preterm birth is associated with gastric acid-related disorders in young adulthood.
We conducted a national cohort study of 626,811 individuals born in Sweden in 1973 to 1979, followed up for antisecretory (proton pump inhibitor and H2-receptor antagonist) medication prescriptions from all outpatient and inpatient pharmacies nationwide from 2005 to 2009 (ages 25.5-37.0 years). We excluded individuals with congenital anomalies, and examined potential confounding by other comorbidities identified on the basis of oral anti-inflammatory or corticosteroid medication prescription.
Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with antisecretory medication prescription in young adulthood. Adjusted odds ratios for =1 antisecretory medication prescription/year were 3.38 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.73-6.62) for individuals born at 22-27 weeks, 1.38 (95% CI, 1.19-1.60) for those born at 28-34 weeks, and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.32) for those born at 35-36 weeks, relative to those born full-term (37-42 weeks). Exclusion of individuals who were prescribed oral anti-inflammatory or corticosteroid medications (=1/year) had little effect on these results.
These findings suggest that low gestational age at birth may be independently associated with an increased risk of gastric acid-related disorders in young adulthood.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22382080 View in PubMed
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Comorbidities and mortality in persons with schizophrenia: a Swedish national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117259
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Mar 1;170(3):324-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2013
Author
Casey Crump
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine and the Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Mar 1;170(3):324-33
Date
Mar-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Ambulatory Care
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Life expectancy
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - mortality
Neoplasms - mortality
Risk
Schizophrenia - mortality
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Schizophrenia is associated with premature mortality, but the specific causes and pathways are unclear. The authors used outpatient and inpatient data for a national population to examine the association between schizophrenia and mortality and comorbidities.
This was a national cohort study of 6,097,834 Swedish adults, including 8,277 with schizophrenia, followed for 7 years (2003-2009) for mortality and comorbidities diagnosed in any outpatient or inpatient setting nationwide.
On average, men with schizophrenia died 15 years earlier, and women 12 years earlier, than the rest of the population, and this was not accounted for by unnatural deaths. The leading causes were ischemic heart disease and cancer. Despite having twice as many health care system contacts, schizophrenia patients had no increased risk of nonfatal ischemic heart disease or cancer diagnoses, but they had an elevated mortality from ischemic heart disease (adjusted hazard ratio for women, 3.33 [95% CI=2.73-4.05]; for men, 2.20 [95% CI=1.83-2.65]) and cancer (adjusted hazard ratio for women, 1.71 [95% CI=1.38-2.10; for men, 1.44 [95% CI=1.15-1.80]). Among all people who died from ischemic heart disease or cancer, schizophrenia patients were less likely than others to have been diagnosed previously with these conditions (for ischemic heart disease, 26.3% compared with 43.7%; for cancer, 73.9% compared with 82.3%). The association between schizophrenia and mortality was stronger among women and the employed. Lack of antipsychotic treatment was also associated with elevated mortality.
Schizophrenia patients had markedly premature mortality, and the leading causes were ischemic heart disease and cancer, which appeared to be underdiagnosed. Preventive interventions should prioritize primary health care tailored to this population, including more effective risk modification and screening for cardiovascular disease and cancer.
PubMed ID
23318474 View in PubMed
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Interactive Effects of Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index on the Risk of Hypertension.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273847
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):210-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Source
JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):210-6
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body mass index
Exercise Tolerance
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle strength
Physical Fitness
Risk
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
High body mass index (BMI) and low physical fitness are risk factors for hypertension, but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions between these modifiable risk factors may help inform more effective interventions in susceptible subgroups.
To determine the interactive effects of BMI and physical fitness on the risk of hypertension in a large national cohort.
This cohort study included all 1,547,189 military conscripts in Sweden from January 1, 1969, through December 31, 1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men nationwide each year), who were followed up through December 31, 2012 (maximum age, 62 years). Data analysis was conducted August 1 through August 15, 2015.
Standardized aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and BMI measurements obtained at a military conscription examination.
Hypertension identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses.
A total of 93,035 men (6.0%) were diagnosed with hypertension in 39.7 million person-years of follow-up. High BMI and low aerobic capacity (but not muscular strength) were associated with increased risk of hypertension, independent of family history and socioeconomic factors (BMI, overweight or obese vs normal: incidence rate ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 2.46-2.55; P
Notes
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Comment In: JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Feb;176(2):217-826784456
PubMed ID
26784837 View in PubMed
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Preterm birth and risk of medically treated hypothyroidism in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134970
Source
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Aug;75(2):255-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Casey Crump
Marilyn A Winkleby
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Aug;75(2):255-60
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Fetal Development
Humans
Hypothyroidism - drug therapy - etiology
Odds Ratio
Premature Birth - physiopathology
Risk
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins
Young Adult
Abstract
Previous studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism in later life, but the potential effect of preterm birth, independent of foetal growth, is unknown. Our objective was to determine whether preterm birth is independently associated with medically treated hypothyroidism in young adulthood.
National cohort study of 629,806 individuals born in Sweden from 1973 through 1979, including 27,935 born preterm (
Notes
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Comment In: Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Jun;7(6):31221502979
PubMed ID
21521303 View in PubMed
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Interactive effects of physical fitness and body mass index on risk of stroke: A national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286027
Source
Int J Stroke. 2016 Aug;11(6):683-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
Casey Crump
Jan Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Source
Int J Stroke. 2016 Aug;11(6):683-94
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body mass index
Brain ischemia - epidemiology
Cerebral Hemorrhage - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Muscle strength
Physical Fitness
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - pathology - physiopathology
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
High body mass index (BMI) and low physical fitness are risk factors for stroke, but their interactive effects are unknown. Elucidation of interactions between these modifiable risk factors can help inform preventive interventions in susceptible subgroups.
National cohort study of all 1,547,294 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97-98% of all 18-year-old males). Standardized aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and body mass index measurements were examined in relation to stroke identified from inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximum age 62 years).
Sixteen thousand nine hundred seventy-nine men were diagnosed with stroke in 39.7 million person-years of follow-up. High body mass index, low aerobic fitness, and (less strongly) low muscular fitness were associated with higher risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage, independently of family history and sociodemographic factors. High body mass index (overweight/obese vs. normal) and low aerobic capacity (lowest vs. highest tertile) had similar effect magnitudes, and their combination was associated with highest stroke risk (incidence rate ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 2.14-2.60; P?
Notes
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PubMed ID
27016513 View in PubMed
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Early-term birth (37-38 weeks) and mortality in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117067
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Mar;24(2):270-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Casey Crump
Kristina Sundquist
Marilyn A Winkleby
Jan Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. kccrump@stanford.edu
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Mar;24(2):270-6
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cause of Death
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Term Birth
Abstract
Early-term birth (gestational age, 37-38 weeks) has been associated with increased infant mortality relative to later-term birth, but mortality beyond infancy has not been studied. We examined the association between early-term birth and mortality through young adulthood.
We conducted a national cohort study of 679,981 singleton births in Sweden in 1973-1979, followed up for all-cause and cause-specific mortality through 2008 (ages 29-36 years).
There were 10,656 deaths in 21.5 million person-years of follow-up. Among those still alive at the beginning of each age range, early-term birth relative to those born at 39-42 weeks was associated with increased mortality in the neonatal period (0-27 days: adjusted hazard ratio = 2.18 [95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.51]), postneonatal period (28-364 days: 1.66 [1.44-1.92]), early childhood (1-5 years: 1.29 [1.10-1.51]), and young adulthood (18-36 years: 1.14 [1.05-1.24]), but not in late childhood/adolescence (6-17 years: 0.97 [0.84-1.12]). In young adulthood, early-term birth was strongly associated with death from congenital anomalies and endocrine disorders, especially diabetes (2.89 [1.54-5.43]).
In this large national cohort study, early-term birth was independently associated with increased mortality in infancy, early childhood, and young adulthood. Lowest short-term and long-term mortality was among those born at 39-42 weeks.
PubMed ID
23337240 View in PubMed
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