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Active smoking and secondhand smoke increase breast cancer risk: the report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk (2009).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138696
Source
Tob Control. 2011 Jan;20(1):e2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
Kenneth C Johnson
Anthony B Miller
Neil E Collishaw
Julie R Palmer
S Katharine Hammond
Andrew G Salmon
Kenneth P Cantor
Mark D Miller
Norman F Boyd
John Millar
Fernand Turcotte
Author Affiliation
Science Integration Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, Ottawa K1A0K9, Canada. ken_lcdc_johnson@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Tob Control. 2011 Jan;20(1):e2
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetyltransferases - genetics
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinogens
Female
Humans
Organizations
Premenopause
Public Health
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Four authoritative reviews of active smoking and breast cancer have been published since 2000, but only one considered data after 2002 and conclusions varied. Three reviews of secondhand smoke (SHS) and breast cancer (2004-2006) each came to different conclusions. With 30 new studies since 2002, further review was deemed desirable. An Expert Panel was convened by four Canadian agencies, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada and the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer to comprehensively examine the weight of evidence from epidemiological and toxicological studies and understanding of biological mechanisms regarding the relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer. This article summarises the panel's full report (http://www.otru.org/pdf/special/expert_panel_tobacco_breast_cancer.pdf). There are 20 known or suspected mammary carcinogens in tobacco smoke, and recognised biological mechanisms that explain how exposure to these carcinogens could lead to breast cancer. Results from the nine cohort studies reporting exposure metrics more detailed than ever/never and ex/current smoker show that early age of smoking commencement, higher pack-years and longer duration of smoking increase breast cancer risk 15% to 40%. Three meta-analyses report 35% to 50% increases in breast cancer risk for long-term smokers with N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) slow acetylation genotypes. The active smoking evidence bolsters support for three meta-analyses that each reported about a 65% increase in premenopausal breast cancer risk among never smokers exposed to SHS. The Panel concluded that: 1) the association between active smoking and breast cancer is consistent with causality and 2) the association between SHS and breast cancer among younger, primarily premenopausal women who have never smoked is consistent with causality.
PubMed ID
21148114 View in PubMed
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Age related optic nerve axonal loss in adult Brown Norway rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50568
Source
Exp Eye Res. 2005 Jun;80(6):877-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
William O Cepurna
Robert J Kayton
Elaine C Johnson
John C Morrison
Author Affiliation
The Kenneth C. Swan Ocular Neurobiology Laboratory, Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 3375 SW Terwilliger Boulevard, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
Source
Exp Eye Res. 2005 Jun;80(6):877-84
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - physiology
Animals
Axons - physiology
Cell Count
Intraocular Pressure - physiology
Microscopy, Electron - methods
Nerve Degeneration - pathology - physiopathology
Neuroglia - physiology
Optic Nerve - pathology - physiopathology
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
The effect of age on the number and morphology of optic nerve axons in adult Brown Norway rats (5-31 months old) (n=29) was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By manually counting every axon in areas representing 60% of the optic nerve cross-section, we found a significant negative correlation between age and axon count (R(2)=0.18, P
PubMed ID
15939045 View in PubMed
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Alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the Canadian Enhanced Surveillance System case-control project. Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198820
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2000 Feb;9(1):49-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
P J Villeneuve
K C Johnson
A J Hanley
Y. Mao
Author Affiliation
Cancer Bureau, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada. pvillene@uottawa.ca
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2000 Feb;9(1):49-58
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Coffee - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pancreatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Population Surveillance
Risk assessment
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
The relationship between alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer was investigated using population-based case-control data obtained from eight Canadian provinces. Our findings are based on analyses performed on 583 histologically confirmed pancreatic cancer cases and 4813 controls. Questionnaire data were obtained directly from 76% of the cases. Male subjects with 35 or more cigarette pack-years had an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer relative to never smokers (OR= 1.46, 95% CI 1.00-2.14). Similarly, women reporting at least 23 cigarette pack-years of smoking had an odds ratio of 1.84 (95% CI 1.25-2.69). For the most part, consumption of total alcohol, wine, liquor and beer was not associated with pancreatic cancer. Coffee drinking was not related to pancreatic cancer. More work is needed to clarify the role of these and other potentially modifiable risk factors as a means to reduce the incidence of this disease for which treatment results remain disappointing.
PubMed ID
10777010 View in PubMed
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Animal-related occupations and the risk of leukemia, myeloma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188838
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Aug;13(6):563-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Lin Fritschi
Kenneth C Johnson
Erich V Kliewer
Rick Fry
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, Australia. linf@dph.uwa.edu.au
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2002 Aug;13(6):563-71
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Leukemia - epidemiology - etiology
Logistic Models
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Myeloma - epidemiology - etiology
Multivariate Analysis
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
There is some evidence to suggest that workers in animal-related occupations are at increased risk of developing lymphohematopoietic cancers. This study aimed to examine the risk of leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma associated with occupational exposure to animals.
We used data from a multi-site, population-based case-control study using mailed questionnaires which had taken place in eight of ten Canadian provinces, during 1994-1998. There were 1023 leukemia cases, 1577 NHL cases, and 324 multiple myeloma cases (all histologically confirmed) and 4688 population-based controls. Animal-related occupations were identified from a lifetime occupational history. Subjects in animal-related jobs were compared with others using logistic regression for the risk of leukemia, NHL, and multiple myeloma.
Compared to subjects without occupational exposure to animals, occupational exposure to beef cattle increased the risks of leukemia (odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3) and NHL (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9). No other animal exposure was consistently associated with risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer. An unexpected protective association was observed between work as a fisherman and leukemia (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8) and NHL (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9).
This population-based case-control study found that those individuals working in occupations associated with beef cattle are at increased risk for developing leukemia and lymphoma while those working in occupations requiring the handling of fish are at decreased risk of leukemia and lymphoma.
PubMed ID
12195646 View in PubMed
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An inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157489
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):222-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Kym Mina
Lin Fritschi
Kenneth C Johnson
Author Affiliation
School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia. Kym.Mina@uwa.edu.au
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):222-6
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Confidence Intervals
Diet
Female
Food Preservation - methods
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Seafood
Abstract
Epidemiological studies suggest that fish consumption may be a protective factor against the development of prostate cancer. We investigated the association between prostate cancer risk and fresh and preserved fish consumption among participants of a population-based case-control study (1,534 cases, 1,607 controls). Fish intake was measured using a dietary questionnaire that collected both frequency of consumption of a given portion size. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer risk for all levels of consumption, but reductions only reached statistical significance for the category of 1 to 3 servings of preserved fish per month (odds ratio = 0.78, confidence interval = 0.64-0.95). Consumption of any fat or energy from preserved fish was also associated with reduced risk. There was no suggestion of reduced prostate cancer risk with consumption of fresh and canned fish. Our results suggest that consumption of preserved fish may reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer.
PubMed ID
18444154 View in PubMed
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The association of alcohol and night driving with fatal snowmobile trauma: a case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216945
Source
Ann Emerg Med. 1994 Nov;24(5):842-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1994
Author
B. Rowe
R. Milner
C. Johnson
G. Bota
Author Affiliation
Department of Research, Northeastern Ontario Family Medicine, Laurentian University, Canada.
Source
Ann Emerg Med. 1994 Nov;24(5):842-8
Date
Nov-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidents - mortality
Accidents, Traffic - mortality
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - blood - epidemiology - prevention & control
Case-Control Studies
Cause of Death
Confidence Intervals
Female
Humans
Male
Matched-Pair Analysis
Motorcycles
Odds Ratio
Off-Road Motor Vehicles
Ontario - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate the association of alcohol use and night driving with traumatic snowmobile fatalities.
Case-control study.
Traumatic deaths occurring while driving a snowmobile during the years 1985 to 1990 were reviewed. A sample of 1989 to 1990 fatal motor vehicle driver and motorcycle driver accidents were used as controls. Records were obtained from the provincial coroner.
One hundred eight snowmobile fatalities, 432 motor vehicle fatalities, and 108 motorcycle fatalities were included. Young men (mean age, 30 years) made up the snowmobile fatalities population, with weekend fatalities predominating (67%). Snowmobile fatalities were associated with use during times of suboptimal lighting (crude odds ratio, 1.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.3]; P
Notes
Comment In: Ann Emerg Med. 1995 May;25(5):717-87741357
PubMed ID
7978556 View in PubMed
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Association of obesity and cancer risk in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181860
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Feb 1;159(3):259-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2004
Author
Sai Yi Pan
Kenneth C Johnson
Anne-Marie Ugnat
Shi Wu Wen
Yang Mao
Author Affiliation
Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Saiyi_Pan@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Feb 1;159(3):259-68
Date
Feb-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Confidence Intervals
Diet
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Obesity - complications
Population Surveillance - methods
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking
Somatomedins
Abstract
The authors conducted a population-based, case-control study of 21,022 incident cases of 19 types of cancer and 5,039 controls aged 20-76 years during 1994-1997 to examine the association between obesity and the risks of various cancers. Compared with people with a body mass index of less than 25 kg/m(2), obese (body mass index of > or = 30 kg/m(2)) men and women had an increased risk of overall cancer (multivariable adjusted odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.48), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.72), leukemia (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.96), multiple myeloma (odds ratio = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.46, 2.89), and cancers of the kidney (odds ratio = 2.74, 95% CI: 2.30, 3.25), colon (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.61, 2.31), rectum (odds ratio = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.00), pancreas (odds ratio = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.92), breast (in postmenopausal women) (odds ratio = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.06), ovary (odds ratio = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.44, 2.64), and prostate (odds ratio = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.47). Overall, excess body mass accounted for 7.7% of all cancers in Canada-9.7% in men and 5.9% in women. This study provides further evidence that obesity increases the risk of overall cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the kidney, colon, rectum, breast (in postmenopausal women), pancreas, ovary, and prostate.
PubMed ID
14742286 View in PubMed
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Brain cancer and occupational exposure to magnetic fields among men: results from a Canadian population-based case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190851
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;31(1):210-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
David A Agnew
Kenneth C Johnson
Yang Mao
Author Affiliation
Environmental Risk Assessment and Case Surveillance Division, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0L2. pvillene@uottawa.ca
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Feb;31(1):210-7
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Astrocytoma - epidemiology
Brain Neoplasms - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Electromagnetic fields - adverse effects
Glioblastoma - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure
Abstract
The relationship between occupational exposure to magnetic fields and brain cancer in men was investigated using population-based case-control data collected in eight Canadian provinces. Emphasis was placed on examining the variations in risk across different histological types.
A list of occupations was compiled for 543 cases and 543 controls that were individually matched by age. Occupations were categorized according to their average magnetic field exposure through blinded expert review ( or = 0.6 microT). In total, 133 cases (14%) and 123 controls (12%) were estimated to have at least one occupation whereby magnetic field exposures exceeded 0.3 microT. Odds ratios (OR) were generated using conditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for suspected occupational risk factors for brain cancer.
A non-significantly increased risk of brain cancer was observed among men who had ever held a job with an average magnetic field exposure >0.6 microT relative to those with exposures
PubMed ID
11914323 View in PubMed
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Canadian health databases relevant to Great Lakes Basin research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211965
Source
Toxicol Ind Health. 1996 May-Aug;12(3-4):551-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
K C Johnson
Author Affiliation
Environmental Risk Assessment and Case Surveillance Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Toxicol Ind Health. 1996 May-Aug;12(3-4):551-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced
Cohort Studies
Data Collection
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Great Lakes Region
Humans
Information Systems
Neoplasms - chemically induced - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Ontario
Public Health - standards
Risk factors
Abstract
Several population-based health databases exist in Canada which provide valuable systematic information for facilitating epidemiological evaluation of human health in the Great Lakes Basin. They include the long-established Canadian Mortality Database, a national birth defects registry, a provincial hospitalization database, and provincial and national cancer registry systems. The most recent addition is the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System which currently is being implemented to allow for detailed evaluation of air and water quality concerns in relation to a range of cancer types. The system includes statistical evaluation of geographical cancer incidence patterns; development of a national environmental quality database; and systematic collection of individual risk factor information for a large number of newly diagnosed cancer cases and a population control group. A brief description of each database and examples of relevant research using each of these databases is presented.
PubMed ID
8843571 View in PubMed
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A case-control study of diet and the risk of ovarian cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178577
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Sep;13(9):1521-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Sai Yi Pan
Anne-Marie Ugnat
Yang Mao
Shi Wu Wen
Kenneth C Johnson
Author Affiliation
Surveillance and Risk Assessment Division, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Sep;13(9):1521-7
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Cholesterol, Dietary - administration & dosage
Eggs
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Nutrition Surveys
Odds Ratio
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Risk
Statistics as Topic
Vitamins
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that some dietary factors may play a role in the etiology of ovarian cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent. We assessed the association of ovarian cancer with dietary factors in a population-based case-control study in Canada. Diet information was collected on 442 incident cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in 1994 to 1997 and 2,135 population controls via a self-administered questionnaire. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of cholesterol intake, those in the second, third, and fourth quartiles had a multivariate adjusted odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)] of 1.12 (0.81-1.56), 1.20 (0.85-1.68), and 1.42 (1.03-1.97), respectively (P for trend = 0.031). Higher egg consumption was also associated with a nonsignificant increase in ovarian cancer risk. The ORs (95% CIs) for ovarian cancer were 0.77 (0.60-1.04) and 0.76 (0.56-0.99) among women in the highest quartile of total vegetable and cruciferous vegetable intake as compared with women in the lowest quartile. Women who took supplements of vitamin E, beta-carotene, and B-complex vitamins for > or =10 years had ORs (95% CIs) of 0.49 (0.30-0.81), 0.31 (0.11-0.91), and 0.61 (0.36-1.05), respectively. However, we did not observe an association of ovarian cancer risk with dietary fat intake, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fruit, dairy products, meat products, fish, chicken, grain products, nut products, baked desserts, margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and supplement of multiple vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, zinc, and selenium. Our findings suggested that ovarian cancer risk was positively associated with higher consumption of dietary cholesterol and eggs and inversely associated with higher intake of total vegetables and cruciferous vegetables and supplementation of vitamin E, beta-carotene, and B-complex vitamins.
PubMed ID
15342455 View in PubMed
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75 records – page 1 of 8.