OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal relationship between body mass index (BMI), a major vascular risk factor, and cerebral atrophy, a marker of neurodegeneration, in a population-based sample of middle-aged women. METHODS: A representative sample of 290 women born in 1908, 1914, 1918, and 1922 was examined in 1968 to 1969, 1974 to 1975, 1980 to 1981, and 1992 to 1993 as part of the Population Study of Women in Göteborg, Sweden. At each examination, women completed a survey on a variety of health and lifestyle factors and underwent anthropometric, clinical, and neuropsychiatric assessments and blood collection. Atrophy of the temporal, frontal, occipital, and parietal lobes was measured on CT in 1992 when participants were age 70 to 84. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between BMI and brain measures. RESULTS: Women with atrophy of the temporal lobe were, on average, 1.1 to 1.5 kg/m2 higher in BMI at all examinations than women without temporal atrophy (p
Comment In: Neurology. 2005 Jun 14;64(11):1990-1; author reply 1990-115955971
SummaryForPatientsIn: Neurology. 2004 Nov 23;63(10):E19-2015557485
The present study evaluated two non-invasive diagnostic methods for H. pylori infection in children, i.e. an in-house ELISA using sonicated Campylobacter jejuni antigen for absorption of cross-reacting antibodies and an immunoblot kit (Helico Blot 2.0, Genelabs, Singapore). 13C -Urea breath test (13C-UBT) was used as reference METHOD: Sera and questionnaires were collected from 695/858 (81%) Swedish school children with mixed ethnic backgrounds within a cross-sectional, community-based study. Of 133 children with an ELISA OD value of > or = 0.1, all were screened with immunoblot and 107 made a 13C-UBT. The negative controls were 34/37 children from three school classes with an ELISA OD value of
A representative population sample of middle-aged women was studied in 1974-75. In a subsample, body composition and adipose tissue cellularity variables were determined and individuals with a particular clinical disorder were compared with the total subsample. Women with diabetes mellitus had more body fat and higher fat cell weights and larger fat cell members, whereas these variables did not differ in women with IHD or hypertension compared with the total subsample. Total body fat correlated with arterial BPs, fasting blood glucose, serum lipids and serum uric acid. The correlations were stronger than those reported previously by us between weight index and these variables. In univariate analyses, fat cell weight correlated with systolic BP, serum triglycerides and serum uric acid, and fat cell number with diastolic BP, fasting blood glucose and serum uric acid. In multivariate analyses, when due allowance was made for total body fat, the correlations between these variables and fat cell weight or fat cell number did not reach statistical significance.
The results refer to a 12-year longitudinal population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Correlations were studied between initial adipose tissue amount and adipose tissue distribution on the one hand and incidence of diabetes and change in serum blood glucose concentration on the other. Body mass index, sum of two skinfolds and waist-to-hip circumference ratio were significantly associated with incidence of diabetes. The waist-to-hip ratio was also positively associated with an increase of serum glucose concentration in the fasting state during the followup period. The significant correlations remained in multivariate analysis and were independent of age, initial smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, intake of antihypertensive drugs and serum cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose concentrations. The correlations between the separate anthropometric variables and incidence of diabetes remained when the other anthropometric variables were considered as background factors. The distribution of fat to the abdominal region as well as the total amount of fat per se seem to be important risk factors for diabetes and the effect of one of these factors seems to add to the other.
It has been proposed that immunity declines with age. Most evidence for this hypothesis has been obtained from cross-sectional samples of unrelated populations that differ in age, antigen exposure, and morbidity. In the present study, the authors used serum samples collected repeatedly from the same persons in longitudinal studies. Two representative samples of the population in G?teborg, Sweden were obtained; the first was studied at ages 38, 50, and 62 years, and the second at ages 70, 75, 79, and 81 years, respectively. The phosphorylcholine determinant of pneumococcal teichoic acid and the B blood group determinant were selected as model polysaccharide antigens. The results demonstrate a consistent decline in individual antibody levels in the decades before age 70 years but not later. Antibodies to phosphorylcholine and blood group B were highly parallel, suggesting that the decline was a general phenomenon for antibodies to polysaccharide antigens.
In a prospective population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden, three examinations were conducted with 12-year intervals between 1968-1969 and 1992-1993. There were 1462 participants aged 38-60 years in the baseline study in 1968-1969, with a participation rate of 90.1%. This paper describes longitudinal changes and secular trends with respect to women's alcohol habits. An alcohol frequency questionnaire was validated at baseline and was re-administered at all examinations. Between 1968-1969 and 1980-1981, the proportion of alcohol abstainers decreased significantly both in 38-year-old and 50-year-old women. Women reporting alcohol intake at least once per week had higher socio-economic status and higher education than other women. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpepsidase concentration was higher in women with the heavier alcohol intake, while a number of potential cardiovascular risk indicators were higher in women with the lower intake. Daily intake of wine and spirits was about as common at all three examinations, whereas moderate intake of wine and spirits was more common in 1980-1981 and 1992-1993 than in 1968-1969. There seemed to be an increase in overall consumption of alcohol, mainly due to the increase in moderate drinking, but there was no indication of a large increase in heavy consumption of alcohol.
Body weight, body height, skinfolds, circumferences and weight indices in a population sample of 1462 women in ages between 38 and 60 years are presented. Significant age differences were noted. High correlations (r) were found between body weight and triceps and subscapular skinfolds (0.62 and 0.72 respectively) and between body weight and arm, waist and buttock circumferences (0.75-0.88). Age differences were mostly noted between 46 and 50 years of age. After that age there was a comparatively greater increase of the waist circumference than of the buttock circumference, while triceps skinfold seemed to decrease after the age of 50 indicating an altered adipose tissue distribution from the extremities to the trunk with increasing age. When taking data from a previous study of body weight in the same population of women into consideration it seems that the age differences in body weight found in cross-sectional study like the present one may to a large extent depend on differences between different cohorts studied.
OBJECTIVE--To examine association of different measures of serum lipid concentration and obesity with mortality in women. DESIGN--Prospective observational study initiated in 1968-9, follow up examination after 12 years, and follow up study based on death certificates after 20 years. SETTING--Gothenburg, Sweden. SUBJECTS--1462 randomly selected women aged 38-60 at start of study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Total mortality and death from myocardial infarction as predicted by serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, body mass index, and ratio of circumference of waist to circumference of hips. RESULTS--170 women died during follow up, 26 from myocardial infarction. Serum triglyceride concentration and waist:hip ratio were significantly associated with both end points (relative risk of total mortality for highest quarter of triglyceride concentration v lower three quarters 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.30 to 2.67); relative risk for waist:hip ratio 1.67 (1.18 to 2.36)). These associations remained after adjustment for background variables. Serum cholesterol concentration and body mass index were initially associated with death from myocardial infarction, but association was lost after adjustment for background variables. Serum triglyceride concentration and waist:hip ratio were independently predictive of both end points (logistic regression coefficient for total mortality for triglyceride 0.514 (SE 0.150), p = 0.0006; coefficient for waist:hip ratio 7.130 (1.92), p = 0.0002) whereas the other two risk factors were not (coefficient for total mortality for cholesterol concentration -0.102 (0.079), p = 0.20; coefficient for body mass index -0.051 (0.027), p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--Lipid risk profile appears to be different in men and women given that serum triglyceride concentration was an independent risk factor for mortality while serum cholesterol concentration was not. Consistent with previous observations in men, localisation of adipose tissue was more important than obesity per se as risk factor in women.