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Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273655
Source
Nat Commun. 2016;7:11842
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Robin Cristofari
Giorgio Bertorelle
André Ancel
Andrea Benazzo
Yvon Le Maho
Paul J Ponganis
Nils Chr Stenseth
Phil N Trathan
Jason D Whittington
Enrico Zanetti
Daniel P Zitterbart
Céline Le Bohec
Emiliano Trucchi
Source
Nat Commun. 2016;7:11842
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory.
PubMed ID
27296726 View in PubMed
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Individual variability in contaminants and physiological status in a resident Arctic seabird species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298869
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jan 25; 249:191-199
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-25-2019
Author
Norith Eckbo
Céline Le Bohec
Victor Planas-Bielsa
Nicholas A Warner
Quentin Schull
Dorte Herzke
Sandrine Zahn
Ane Haarr
Geir W Gabrielsen
Katrine Borgå
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, Department of Biosciences, Problemveien 7, 0315, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: norith.eckbo@ibv.uio.no.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jan 25; 249:191-199
Date
Jan-25-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
While migratory seabirds dominate ecotoxicological studies within the Arctic, there is limited knowledge about exposure and potential effects from circulating legacy and emerging contaminants in species who reside in the high-Arctic all year round. Here, we focus on the case of the Mandt's Black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) breeding at Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79.00°N, 11.66°E) and investigate exposure to legacy and emerging contaminants in relation to individual physiological status, i.e. body condition, oxidative stress and relative telomere length. Despite its benthic-inshore foraging strategy, the Black guillemot displayed overall similar contaminant concentrations in blood during incubation (?PCB11 (15.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PFAS5 (9.9?ng/g w.w.)?>??Pesticides9 (6.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PBDE4 (2.7?ng/g w.w.), and Hg (0.3 µg/g d.w.) compared to an Arctic migratory seabird in which several contaminant-related stress responses have been observed. Black guillemots in poorer condition tended to display higher levels of contaminants, higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites, lower plasmatic antioxidant capacity, and shorter telomere lengths; however the low sample size restrict any strong conclusions. Nevertheless, our data suggests that nonlinear relationships with a threshold may exist between accumulated contaminant concentrations and physiological status of the birds. These findings were used to build a hypothesis to be applied in future modelling for describing how chronic exposure to contaminants may be linked to telomere dynamics.
PubMed ID
30889502 View in PubMed
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Individual variability in contaminants and physiological status in a resident Arctic seabird species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301923
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jun; 249:191-199
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2019
Author
Norith Eckbo
Céline Le Bohec
Victor Planas-Bielsa
Nicholas A Warner
Quentin Schull
Dorte Herzke
Sandrine Zahn
Ane Haarr
Geir W Gabrielsen
Katrine Borgå
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, Department of Biosciences, Problemveien 7, 0315, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: norith.eckbo@ibv.uio.no.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jun; 249:191-199
Date
Jun-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - metabolism - physiology
Charadriiformes - metabolism - physiology
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - metabolism
Mercury - metabolism
Svalbard
Abstract
While migratory seabirds dominate ecotoxicological studies within the Arctic, there is limited knowledge about exposure and potential effects from circulating legacy and emerging contaminants in species who reside in the high-Arctic all year round. Here, we focus on the case of the Mandt's Black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) breeding at Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79.00°N, 11.66°E) and investigate exposure to legacy and emerging contaminants in relation to individual physiological status, i.e. body condition, oxidative stress and relative telomere length. Despite its benthic-inshore foraging strategy, the Black guillemot displayed overall similar contaminant concentrations in blood during incubation (?PCB11 (15.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PFAS5 (9.9?ng/g w.w.)?>??Pesticides9 (6.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PBDE4 (2.7?ng/g w.w.), and Hg (0.3 µg/g d.w.) compared to an Arctic migratory seabird in which several contaminant-related stress responses have been observed. Black guillemots in poorer condition tended to display higher levels of contaminants, higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites, lower plasmatic antioxidant capacity, and shorter telomere lengths; however the low sample size restrict any strong conclusions. Nevertheless, our data suggests that nonlinear relationships with a threshold may exist between accumulated contaminant concentrations and physiological status of the birds. These findings were used to build a hypothesis to be applied in future modelling for describing how chronic exposure to contaminants may be linked to telomere dynamics.
PubMed ID
30889502 View in PubMed
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Marked phylogeographic structure of Gentoo penguin reveals an ongoing diversification process along the Southern Ocean.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277967
Source
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2016 Dec 08;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-08-2016
Author
Juliana A Vianna
Daly Noll
Gisele P M Dantas
Maria Virginia Petry
Andrés Barbosa
Daniel González-Acuña
Céline Le Bohec
Francesco Bonadonna
Elie Poulin
Source
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2016 Dec 08;
Date
Dec-08-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Two main hypotheses have been debated about the biogeography of the Southern Ocean: (1) the Antarctic Polar Front (APF), acting as a barrier between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic provinces, and (2) the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), promoting gene flow among sub-Antarctic areas. The Gentoo penguin is distributed throughout these two provinces, separated by the APF. We analyzed mtDNA (HVR1) and 12 microsatellite loci of 264 Gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua, from 12 colonies spanning from the Western Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands (WAP) to the sub-Antarctic Islands (SAI). While low genetic structure was detected among WAP colonies (mtDNA ?ST=0.037-0.133; microsatellite FST=0.009-0.063), high differentiation was found between all SAI and WAP populations (mtDNA ?ST = 0.678-0.930; microsatellite FST = 0.110-0.290). These results suggest that contemporary dispersal around the Southern Ocean is very limited or absent. As predicted, the APF appears to be a significant biogeographical boundary for Gentoo penguin populations; however, the ACC does not promote connectivity in this species. Our data suggest demographic expansion in the WAP during the last glacial maximum (LGM, about 20 Kya), but stability in SAI. Phylogenetic analyses showed a deep divergence between populations from the WAP and those from the SAI. Therefore, taxonomy should be further revised. The Crozet Islands resulted as a basal clade (3.57 Mya), followed by the Kerguelen Islands (2.32 Mya) as well as a more recent divergence between the Falkland/Malvinas Islands and the WAP (1.27 Mya). Historical isolation, local adaptation, and past climate scenarios of those Evolutionarily Significant Units may have led to different potentials to respond to climate changes.
PubMed ID
27940333 View in PubMed
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