The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD).
We have previously investigated the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young Danish people aged 1-35 years in Denmark during 2000-2006. We included all deaths (n=6629) and identified 314 autopsied cases of SCD, 40 of whom (13%) died from CAD. To compare symptoms before death, the CAD case group was sex- and age-matched 1:2 with a control group randomly sampled from a population of 1497 individuals who had died in accidents. We used data from the National Patient Registry on previous contacts with the healthcare system for all persons and read all available patient records, including death certificates and autopsy reports.
A total of 31 (79%) persons with CAD-SCD had cardiac symptoms such as angina pectoris (n=24, 62%) and dyspnoea during the 12 months before death, and this was significantly higher than in the control group (p
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the young (SCDY). The aim of this study was to characterize symptoms before SCDY due to HCM.
Through review of all death certificates, we identified all SCDs in Danes aged 1-35 years in 2000-2009. Nationwide we included all deaths (n = 8756) and identified 431 autopsied SCDYs. All available records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved. To compare symptoms, we included a control groups consisting of traffic accident victims (n = 74). In the 10-year study period, 431 autopsied SCDY cases were reviewed and 38 cases (9%) were included, of which 22 (58%) had morphologic findings diagnostic of HCM and 16 (42%) had findings suggestive, but not diagnostic, of HCM ('possible HCM'). Cardiac symptoms >1 h prior to death were reported in 21 (55%) of cases, and 16 (42%) sought medical attention. One (1%) control had cardiac symptoms before death. Consequently, a significantly higher proportion of cases had cardiac symptoms before death and cases more often sought medical attention than controls (P
Inherited disease may be causative in many young sudden unexpected death cases. Autopsy is essential in the counselling of the bereaved, as the family of the victim may be at risk too. In a nationwide setting operating under the same set of laws, we hypothesized that regional differences exist in the investigation of young persons dying suddenly and unexpectedly.
All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-2006 were included. Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. External examination as well as autopsy status was retrieved. Significant regional differences were found regarding external examinations and autopsy frequencies. Ratios of conducted external examinations varied between 63% and 93% (p?=?0.004). Autopsy ratios varied between 60% and 88% (p?=?0.001). In urban areas, external examinations and autopsies were more often conducted than in rural areas. In East Denmark, there were more external examinations resulting in a forensic autopsy, and there was a higher overall autopsy rate compared to West Denmark.
Despite operating under the same set of laws, we document significant regional differences in forensic investigations of young persons suffering a sudden unexpected death. This is probably not unique for Denmark although no data exist to confirm that. The results are worrying and call for a revision of the way these deaths are handled. Mandatory autopsy in sudden unexpected death in young persons is warranted as a thorough investigation of the death may help the clinician in guidance of the relatives in relation to hereditary diseases.
Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently.
We conducted a historical cohort study using data from Danish registries and a complete manual review of all death certificates. The population studied consisted of all Danish residents in the age group 1-35 years, in the period 2000-2006 (inclusive), and the main outcome measures were risk of death and SUD.
We identified 33,022 subjects with epilepsy (median follow-up 3.7 years) and 3,001,952 subjects without (median follow-up 7.0 years). Among 685 deaths in the population with epilepsy, we identified 50 cases of definite and probable SUDEP corresponding to an incidence rate of 41.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 31.6-54.9) per 100,000 person-years. Incidence rates increased with age from 17.6 (95% CI 9.5-32.8) in the age group 1-18 years to 73.8 (95% CI 52.5-103.8) for the age group 24-35 years. Having epilepsy increased the crude risk of death with a hazard ratio (HR) of 11.9 (95% CI 11.0-12.9). When adjusting for sex and comorbidities often encountered in patients with epilepsy (neurologic disease including cerebral palsy, psychiatric disease including mental retardation, and congenital disorders), as well as the Charlson comorbidity score, the HR fell to 5.4 (95% CI 4.9-6.0). The crude HR for SUD was 27.5 (95% CI 18.1-41.8) and fell to 16.3 (95% CI 9.8-26.9) when adjusted for the same covariates as above.
Epilepsy in and of itself carries a significant risk of premature death and SUD. These findings highlight the potential gains of risk factor modification for the prevention of premature death and SUDEP in patients with epilepsy.
Hitherto, sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young has been described with no distinction between genders. SCD occurs more often in men (SCDm) than women (SCDw), but this disparity is not understood and has not been investigated systematically in a nationwide setting. Our objective was to report gender differences in SCD in the young in a nationwide (Denmark) setting.
All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years nationwide in Denmark between 2000 and 2009 were included. Death certificates and autopsy reports were obtained. The extensive health care registries in Denmark were used to investigate any known disease prior to death. SCDw were compared to SCDm.
During the 10-year study period there were a total of 8756 deaths in 23.7 million person-years. In total, 635 deaths were SCD. SCDw constituted 205 deaths (32%). Women had a higher proportion of witnessed deaths (51 vs. 41%, p?=?0.02) and died less often in a public place (16 vs. 26%, p?=?0.01). Age at death, ratios of autopsies and sudden unexplained deaths, and comorbidities, did not differ. Causes of SCD were largely comparable between genders. The incidence rate of SCDw was half of that of SCDm (1.8 vs. 3.6 per 100,000 person-years, incidence rate ratio 2.0 (95% CI 1.7-2.4), p?
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Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Cardiac Arrhythmia (DARC), Copenhagen, Denmark; Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
BACKGROUND: Studies on incidences of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SrSCD) are few and data are needed for the discussion of preparticipation screening for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to chart the incidence and etiology of SrSCD in the young in Denmark (population 5.4 million) and to compare this to the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the background population. METHODS: All 5,662 death certificates for decedents in the period 2000 to 2006 in the age group 12 to 35 years in Denmark were read independently by 2 physicians to identify cases of SCD. Information from autopsy reports, selected hospital records, and multiple registries was used to identify cases of SCD and SrSCD. SrSCD was defined as SCD occurring during or within 1 hour after exercise in a competitive athlete. The size of the athlete population was estimated from national survey data. RESULTS: Fifteen (range 0 to 5 per year) cases of SrSCD were found, 8 of which had antecedent symptoms. The incidence rate was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68 to 2.00) per 100,000 athlete person-years. The most common autopsy findings were arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 4), sudden unexplained death (n = 4), and coronary artery disease (n = 2). The incidence of SCD in the general population age 12 to 35 was 3.76 (95% CI: 3.42 to 4.14) per 100,000 person-years. CONCLUSION: In Denmark, SrSCD is a rare occurrence and the incidence rate is lower than that of SCD in the general population. This may imply a low value of preparticipation screening of athletes in Denmark.
We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for ventricular fibrillation (VF) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in a prospective nationwide setting.
In this case-control study, patients presenting within the first 12 hours of first STEMI who survived to undergo angiography and subsequent PPCI were enrolled. Over 2 years, 219 cases presenting with VF before PPCI and 441 controls without preceding VF were enrolled. Of the 219 case patients, 182 (83%) had STEMI with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to VF, and 37 (17%) had cardiac arrest upon arrival to the emergency room. Medical history was collected by standardized interviews and by linkage to national electronic health records. The incidence of VF before PPCI among STEMI patients was 11.6%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified novel associations between atrial fibrillation and alcohol consumption with VF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation had a 2.80-fold odds of experiencing VF before PPCI (95% CI 1.10 to 7.30). Compared with nondrinkers, patients who consumed 1 to 7 units, 8 to 14 units, or >15 units of alcohol per week had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 (95% CI, 0.80 to 2.20), 2.30 (95% CI, 1.20 to 4.20), or 3.30 (95% CI, 1.80 to 5.90), respectively, for VF. Previously reported associations for preinfarction angina (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.67), age of
Cites: Circulation. 2006 Oct 3;114(14):1462-717000909
Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10% of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during sleep; 89% were out-of-hospital deaths. Highest possible incidence rate of SCD in the young was 2.8 per 100 000 person-years including non-autopsied cases of sudden unexpected death. Excluding those, the incidence rate declined to 1.9 per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions A total of 7% of all deaths in the young can be attributed to SCD, when including non-autopsied cases (autopsy ratio 75%). The incidence rate of SCD in the young of 2.8 per 100 000 person-years is higher than previously reported.