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Associations between infant feeding practice prior to six months and body mass index at six years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258868
Source
Nutrients. 2014 Apr;6(4):1608-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Cindy Mari Imai
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Birna Thorisdottir
Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson
Inga Thorsdottir
Source
Nutrients. 2014 Apr;6(4):1608-17
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Breast Feeding
Child
Diet Records
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Iceland
Infant
Infant Formula
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Linear Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Nutrition Assessment
Obesity - prevention & control
Overweight - prevention & control
Prospective Studies
Weight Gain
Abstract
Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0-12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24747694 View in PubMed
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[Diet of six-year-old Icelandic children - National dietary survey 2011-2012].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117006
Source
Laeknabladid. 2013 Jan;99(1):17-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Hafdis Helgadottir
Birna Thorisdottir
Inga Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
University of Iceland, Iceland. ingigun@hi.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2013 Jan;99(1):17-23
Date
Jan-2013
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Child
Child Behavior
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Dairy Products
Diet
Dietary Fats
Dietary Fiber
Dietary Sucrose
Energy intake
Food Habits
Fruit
Humans
Iceland
Minerals
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Status
Seafood
Vegetables
Vitamins
Abstract
Knowledge of dietary habits makes the basis for public nutrition policy. The aim of this study was to assess dietary intake of Icelandic six-year-olds.
Subjects were randomly selected six-year-old children (n=162). Dietary intake was assessed by three-day-weighed food records. Food and nutrient intake was compared with the Icelandic food based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and recommended intake of vitamins and minerals.
Fruit and vegetable intake was on average 275±164 g/d, and less than 20% of the subjects consumed =400 g/day. Fish and cod liver oil intake was in line with the FBDG among approximately 25% of subjects. Most subjects (87%) consumed at least two portions of dairy products daily. Food with relatively low nutrient density (cakes, cookies, sugar sweetened drinks, sweets and ice-cream) provided up to 25% of total energy intake. The contribution of saturated fatty acids to total energy intake was 14.1%. Less than 20% of the children consumed dietary fibers in line with recommendations, and for saturated fat and salt only 5% consumed less than the recommended upper limits. Average intake of most vitamins and minerals, apart from vitamin-D, was higher than the recommended intake.
Although the vitamin and mineral density of the diet seems adequate, with the exception of vitamin-D, the contribution of low energy density food to total energy intake is high. Intake of vegetables, fruits, fish and cod liver oil is not in line with public recommendations. Strategies aiming at improving diet of young children are needed.
PubMed ID
23341402 View in PubMed
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Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277300
Source
Nutrients. 2016 Feb 04;8(2):75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-04-2016
Author
Birna Thorisdottir
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Gestur I Palsson
Bryndis E Birgisdottir
Inga Thorsdottir
Source
Nutrients. 2016 Feb 04;8(2):75
Date
Feb-04-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child health
Child, Preschool
Diet
Dietary Supplements
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Infant
Infant health
Logistic Models
Male
Nutritional Status
Seasons
Sunlight
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood - epidemiology
Vitamins - administration & dosage - blood
Abstract
High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D = 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83-43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16-27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002-1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26861385 View in PubMed
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Vitamin D intake and status in 12-month-old infants at 63-66° N.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257953
Source
Nutrients. 2014;6(3):1182-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Birna Thorisdottir
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Gestur I Palsson
Inga Thorsdottir
Author Affiliation
Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital & Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Eiriksgata 29, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. bth50@hi.is.
Source
Nutrients. 2014;6(3):1182-93
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Feeding
Dietary Supplements
Female
Food, Fortified
Humans
Iceland
Infant
Linear Models
Male
Nutrition Assessment
Nutritional Status
Rickets - etiology - prevention & control
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - complications - drug therapy
Abstract
The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) = 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OH)D 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9-12 months (eight data collection days) included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 µg/day and serum 25(OH)D 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3-165.5). Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OH)D (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L) than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L), 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L) and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L). Five of six infants with 25(OH)D 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24662162 View in PubMed
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