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Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107728
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
steps. For the purpose of the Citation: Int J Circumpdar Health 2013, 72: 20849 • http://dx.doi.org/10.34021ijch.v72i0.20849 775 Birgit Niclasen et al. analyses, dichotomous measures were constructed on the food poverty item ("always"or"often"/"sometimes"/ "never"), on self-rated health ("fair
  1 document  
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Max Petzold
Christina W Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Greenlandic Branch, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 774-780 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):774-780
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Male
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
In vulnerable populations, food security in children has been found to be associated with negative health effects. Still, little is known about whether the negative health effects can be retrieved in children at the population level.
To examine food insecurity reported by Greenlandic school children as a predictor for perceived health, physical symptoms and medicine use.
The study is based on the Greenlandic part of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey. The 2010 survey included 2,254 students corresponding to 40% of all Greenlandic school children in Grade 5 through 10. The participation rate in the participating schools was 65%. Food insecurity was measured as going to bed or to school hungry because there was no food at home.
Boys, the youngest children (11-12 year-olds), and children from low affluence homes were at increased risk for food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.06) (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984271 View in PubMed
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The association between high recreational physical activity and physical activity as a part of daily living in adolescents and availability of local indoor sports facilities and sports clubs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120075
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Nov;40(7):614-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Max Petzold
Christina W Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden. niclasen@greennet.gl
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2012 Nov;40(7):614-20
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Greenland
Humans
Life Style
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Public Facilities - statistics & numerical data
Recreation
Sports
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine how vigorous physical activity (recreational physical activity) (VPA) and moderate to vigorous physical activity as a part of daily life (MVPA) is associated with structural characteristics (availability of sports facilities and sports clubs with child members) in Greenlandic adolescents.
Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey including 2,430 children aged 11-17 years was used. Logistic regression models were developed with dichotomous measures on VPA and MVPA as outcomes, number of indoor sports facilities and of sports clubs with child members as independent variables, and adjusted for age, gender, family affluence (FAS), and type of habitation (capital, town or village).
High VPA increased with access to indoor facilities, while high MVPA was less likely (odds ratio (OR) 0.54 (0.42-0.70)) if indoor sports facilities were present, both unadjusted and adjusted. Access to a local sports club increased OR for high VPA both unadjusted and adjusted to about 2.3 for five or more clubs, while access to sports clubs was not associated with unadjusted MVPA, negatively associated if adjusted for age, gender and FAS but positively associated if also adjusted for indoor sports facilities.
Access to indoor sports facilities itself had a positive association with high VPA, but was persistently negatively associated with high MVPA. Presence of sports clubs with child members was positively associated with high VPA while the association with high MVPA was more complex. The findings have implications for public health planning.
PubMed ID
23042458 View in PubMed
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Conceptualizing and contextualizing food insecurity among Greenlandic children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113776
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:19928
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Michal Molcho
Steven Arnfjord
Christina Schnohr
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. niclasen@greennet.gl
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:19928
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Development
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Behavior
Child
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Diet
Female
Focus Groups
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Hunger
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental health
Prevalence
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
To review the context of food insecurity in Greenlandic children, to review and compare the outcomes related to food insecurity in Greenlandic children, in other Arctic child populations and in other western societies, and to explore the measure used by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study.
The study includes literature reviews, focus group interviews with children and analyses of data from the HBSC study. HBSC is an international cross-national school-based survey on child and adolescent health and health behaviour in the age groups 11, 13 and 15 years and performed in more than 40 countries. The item on food insecurity is "Some young people go to school or to bed hungry because there is not enough food in the home. How often does this happen to you?" (with the response options: "Always", "Often", "Sometimes", or "Never").
The context to food security among Inuit in Arctic regions was found to be very similar and connected to a westernization of the diet and contamination of the traditional diet. The major challenges are contamination, economic access to healthy food and socio-demographic differences in having a healthy diet. The literature on outcomes related to food insecurity in children in Western societies was reviewed and grouped based on 8 domains. Using data from the Greenlandic HBSC data from 2010, the item on food security showed negative associations on central items in all these domains. Focus group interviews with children revealed face and content validity of the HBSC item.
Triangulation of the above-mentioned findings indicates that the HBSC measure of food shortage is a reliable indicator of food insecurity in Greenlandic schoolchildren. However, more research is needed, especially on explanatory and mediating factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23687639 View in PubMed
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Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2019 Dec; 78(1):1577094
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2019
Author
Stine Emilie Junker Udesen
Trine Lenskjold
Birgit Niclasen
Author Affiliation
a Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen N , Denmark.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2019 Dec; 78(1):1577094
Date
Dec-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Gambling has never been investigated in Greenlandic adolescents. High prevalence of gambling problems and a relation to other addictive behaviours has been found in adult Greenlanders. Greenlandic adolescents are daily exposed to gambling, for example, by selling lottery tickets, through advertises and electronic devices. The aim of this study is to investigate how Greenlandic adolescents perceive gambling, and to pilot test the Lie/Bet screening-instrument.Ten semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted for 31 adolescents, aged 12-16, from 3 schools in Nuuk, Greenland.The 31 adolescents have experiences with gambling. Whether they define a game as gambling depends on: 1) Whether the game is about playing with or about money, 2) whether the game is about earning items, 3) the gain/loss, 4) who they lose money to, and 5) the purpose. If the purpose is to have fun, it is not necessarily seen as gambling. None mentioned bingo as gambling, arguing that bingo is about having fun. Two recent trends were found to have reached Greenland: The close link between sports and gambling, and skin-betting. Additionally, the Lie/Bet screen was, with slight modifications, found to be useful as a screening-instrument among Greenlandic adolescents and it is proposed to be used in future studies.
PubMed ID
30744515 View in PubMed
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Greenlandic patients with colorectal cancer: symptomatology, primary investigations and differences in diagnostic intervals between Nuuk and the rest of the country.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284094
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017;76(1):1344086
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Johan Tolstrup
Rasmus Chemnitz Madsen
Maria Vandborg Sneftrup
Birgit Niclasen
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2017;76(1):1344086
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a potentially fatal disease, and expedited referral and treatment is needed to ensure early detection.
We aimed to assess the symptomatology of Greenlandic patients with CRC and the primary investigations initiated before referral to Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk for further diagnostic workup. Primary care interval (first consultation until referral), hospital interval (referral until diagnosis) and diagnostic interval (first consultation until diagnosis) were calculated and compared between patients living in Nuuk and in other places in Greenland ("the Coast").
This was a retrospective, register-based study of all patients in Greenland diagnosed with CRC from 2008 through 2011. Medical history was obtained and investigated by reviewing the primary care charts.
In total 113 patients were identified from the Greenlandic cancer database or pathology reports. About 80% of the patients were asked about blood in the stools and changes of bowel habits, and the majority responded positively to this. Abdominal examination was performed for 78%, 65% had a rectal examination performed, 22% a proctoscopy performed and 51% a haemoglobin level measured. The median primary care interval was 4 days in Nuuk vs. 55 days for patients from "the Coast" (p=0.01); the median diagnostic interval was 55 days in Nuuk vs. 95 days for patients from "the Coast" (p=0.04). Median hospital interval was similar for both groups (23 days vs 24 days; p=0.86). Women had a median primary care interval of 70 days vs. 15 days for men (p=0.06).
Patients with CRC presented classic symptomatology of CRC. Primary care interval and diagnostic interval were significantly longer for patients from "the Coast" compared with Nuuk. Women tended to have longer primary care interval. A more standardised examination should be implemented and a national CRC screening programme should be considered to reduce the difference in diagnostic interval and ensure timely referral.
PubMed ID
28705121 View in PubMed
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Greenlandic schoolchildren's compliance with national dietary guidelines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146626
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Aug;13(8):1162-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Christina W Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Greenland Institute of Health Research, Nuuk, Greenland. niclasen@greennet.gl
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Aug;13(8):1162-9
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Diet - economics - standards
Diet Surveys
Female
Food Habits
Food Preferences
Food Supply - economics
Greenland
Humans
Income
Male
Nutrition Policy
Sex Factors
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine to what extent children and adolescents in Greenland comply with the national dietary guidelines, and to analyse the influence of habitation and family affluence on the compliance with dietary guidelines.
Data were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in Greenland. The 2006 survey included 2462 students aged 11 to 17 years.
The proportion of students complying with the national dietary guidelines varied from 14 % to 87 % depending on the food item. Sweets and soft drinks had the lowest compliance. The oldest children had the following characteristics compared with the younger children: fewer ate traditional Greenlandic foods, fewer ate fruit, fewer ate breakfast daily on school days and more drank soft drinks frequently. More boys than girls ate traditional Greenlandic foods often, while more girls ate vegetables daily. The least favourable eating habits in general were found among children from low affluent families and children in villages.
Many Greenlandic schoolchildren did not comply with the national dietary guidelines. Despite a higher intake of traditional foods as a whole, children in villages and less affluent children were less likely to comply with guidelines. A strong relationship between diet, family affluence and availability was found. The study findings indicate that factors such as availability, cost and seasonal variation are important to the intake of both imported and traditional Greenlandic foods. The findings should be taken into consideration when promoting the national guidelines.
PubMed ID
20018120 View in PubMed
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Health care and health care delivery in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138967
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Dec;69(5):437-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Gert Mulvad
Author Affiliation
Greenland Institute of Health Research, Nuuk, Greenland. niclasen@greennet.gl
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Dec;69(5):437-47
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Delivery of Health Care - economics - organization & administration
Female
Greenland
Health Expenditures
Health Manpower - organization & administration
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Preventive Medicine
Public Health
Young Adult
Abstract
To describe the health care system and health care delivery in Greenland.
This was a literature study that included literature and articles searched in PubMed published from 1989 to 2009 about health care in Greenland.
The health care system is a publicly financed governmental responsibility. Its major challenges are limited economic resources, Greenland's demographic structure, rapid epidemiological changes, increased public demand for specialized treatment, difficulty in recruiting professionals and the economic burden imposed by around-the-clock maintenance of specialized staff in sparsely populated areas. To meet these challenges, a public health program focusing on health promotion and prevention, educational initiatives to improve recruitment and a system reorientation moving towards larger health care regions is proposed to be gradually implemented from 2010. One fundamental component of this plan is tying the system together with a telemedicine system and in the future also with a joint electronic patient file system. The importance of better surveillance and monitoring of health has been recognized, while securing best clinical practice and implementing better steering instruments on resource allocation and quality are areas needing focus in the future.
Many of the challenges for the Greenlandic health care system are being addressed with promising strategies, but only the future will show whether they are successful.
PubMed ID
21118636 View in PubMed
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The intake of fruit and sweets in rural and urban Greenland--development from 1994 to 2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134926
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Apr;70(2):186-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Birgit Niclasen
Mette Rasmussen
Ina Borup
Christina Schnohr
Author Affiliation
Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden. niclasen@greennet.gl
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Apr;70(2):186-94
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Candy
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Data Collection
Energy intake
Female
Food Habits
Fruit
Greenland
Humans
Male
Rural Population
Urban Population
Abstract
The aim of this study is to explore the intake of fruit and sweets in Greenlandic schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years in villages, towns and the capital by cross-sectional data collected in 4 comparative surveys from 1994 to 2006. Study design. Repeated cross-sectional study.
Data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, with responses from 1,302 students in 1994, 1,648 in 1998, 891 in 2002 and 1,366 in 2006, each in the age groups of 11, 13 and 15 years.
From 1994 to 2006, the odds ratio for eating fruit daily showed a decline while odds for never eating fruit increased in children living in all types of habitations. For all survey years the intake of fruit was lowest in villages and in 2006 only about 15-20% of village children consumed fruit every day. No general trends were found in the daily intake of sweets or for never eating sweets. Only 6% or less of the respondents never ate sweets. Minor age group and gender differences were seen. For sweets, children in the capital in 2006 had a lower daily use than village children.
Greenland is in the process of nutritional transition. The increase in the proportion of schoolchildren that do not meet the national recommendations for daily fruit consumption and the failure to reduce children's intake of sweets is worrying. The intake of fruit was, for all years, lowest in the villages and was probably related (among other things) to cost and access. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Notes
Erratum In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Jun;70(3):231
PubMed ID
21527069 View in PubMed
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A national study on weight classes among children in Greenland at school entry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258234
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Karsten F Rex
Nicolai H Larsen
Hanne Rex
Birgit Niclasen
Michael L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Queen Ingrid Healthcare Center, Nuuk, Greenland.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To estimate the proportion of gender-specific thinness, overweight and obesity among children born in 2005 at school entry in Greenland and to compare figures between the capital, Nuuk, with the rest of Greenland.
A cross-sectional study based on data from Electronic Medical Records (EMR).
All children born in 2005 with permanent address in Greenland at the time of data extraction with a registered weight and height in EMR from January 1st 2011 to January 31st 2013 were included in the study. Information about height without shoes and weight in light indoor clothing was obtained. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Participants were categorized into age and gender-specific weight classes based on the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs for child overweight, obesity and thinness.
A total of 842 children born in 2005 were identified. Of those, 72% (N=607, 308 boys and 299 girls) had a recorded weight and height in the study period. In total, 74.6% (71.2-78.1) were categorized as of normal weight. The proportion of children with overweight was 15.8% (12.9-18.7) while 6.8% (4.8-8.8) were obese. In all, 2.9% were categorized as thin. The proportion of overweight among boys (12.7%) was lower (p=0.031) than among girls (19.1%), and boys in Nuuk had a lower median BMI compared to the rest of Greenland. No differences in distribution of age and gender-specific overweight and obesity were observed between the capital and the rest of Greenland.
Nearly 1 quarter of Greenlandic children are overweight or obese at school entry. No differences were observed between Nuuk and the rest of Greenland. Information about weight and height is available in the EMR for the majority of all children at school entry in Greenland. Continuous monitoring of the proportion of overweight and obesity among children using data from the EMR in Greenland is recommended.
PubMed ID
25405103 View in PubMed
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Violence- and alcohol-related acute healthcare visits in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118090
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2013 Mar;41(2):113-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Jørgen Nexøe
Julie Præst Wilche
Birgit Niclasen
Ann Birkekær Kjeldsen
Christian Færgemann
Anders Munck
Jens Martin Lauritsen
Author Affiliation
University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark. jnexoe@health.sdu.dk
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2013 Mar;41(2):113-8
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol-Related Disorders - therapy
Alcoholic Intoxication - therapy
Emergency Medical Services - statistics & numerical data
Female
Greenland
Humans
Male
Patient Admission - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Violence - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe emergency admissions in Greenland's healthcare system, and the extent to which admissions were associated with alcohol abuse or violence. Furthermore, we aimed to test whether data on emergencies in Greenland could be registered in a reliable way by simple means.
Registration of all emergencies presented in 15 out of 17 of Greenland's health districts in the period 21 May to 7 June 2010.
In the 17-day registration period, 2403 emergencies were registered. In 10% of cases the patients were clinically alcohol intoxicated. When reason for presentation were mental or social problems, attempted suicide, accidents, or violence, 24, 50, 15, and 59% respectively were intoxicated. Alcohol intoxication was statistically significantly more often associated with advanced treatment (e.g. evacuation, hospitalisation, or follow up by doctor or nurse).
This study confirms that violence- and alcohol-related emergencies put a considerable strain on Greenland's healthcare system. Due to the short observation period, we have not been able to describe the actual extent of the problem in detail, nor was it possible to estimate whether this problem is more pronounced in Greenland than in other countries, for example Denmark.
PubMed ID
23242207 View in PubMed
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