The E-cadherin (CDH1) gene has been associated with prostate carcinogenesis. The C/A polymorphism--160 base pairs relative to the transcription start site has been shown to decrease gene transcription. We analyzed the association between this polymorphism and the risk of sporadic, familial (2 close relatives) and hereditary (3 or more close relatives) prostate cancer. We combined data from 3 population-based epidemiologic studies in Sweden encompassing altogether 1,036 prostate cancer cases and 669 controls that were genotyped for the short nucleotide polymorphism. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated through unconditional logistic regression. We found no significant association between the A-allele and sporadic (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2) or familial (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.9-2.2) prostate cancer. In contrast, risk of hereditary cancer was increased among heterozygote CA carriers (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0-2.7) and particularly among homozygote AA carriers (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4-4.9). Our data indicate that the -160 single nucleotide polymorphism in CDH1 is a low-penetrant prostate cancer susceptibility gene that might explain a proportion of familial and notably hereditary prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVE: To study bacterial 16S RNA in archival prostate samples from 352 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate whether the presence of bacterial DNA was different in those who later developed prostate cancer (n = 171) and in the matched controls that did not progress to cancer (n = 181). METHODS: 16S DNA PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the positive samples. RESULTS: In 96/352 (27%) of the prostate tissue specimens 16S RNA were detected. Sequence analysis revealed Propionibacterium acnes as the predominant microorganism (23% of 16S RNA positive patients). The second most frequent isolate-Escherichia coli was found in 12 (12%) patients. The other isolates included Pseudomonas sp. (3 patients), Actinomyces sp. (2), Streptococcus mutans (1), Corynebacterium sp. (2), Nocardioides sp. (1), Rhodococcus sp. (1) Veillonella sp. (2). In P. acnes positive samples 62% exhibited severe histological inflammation versus 50% in the bacteria-negative group (p = 0.602). The presence of P. acnes in the prostate was associated with prostate cancer development (OR 2.17, 95% CI 0.77-6.95). CONCLUSIONS: This study has revealed P. acnes as the most common bacteria in the prostate in BPH. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in contributing to the development of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer.
We retrospectively evaluated reticulin fiber density (RFD) in 166 diagnostic bone marrow (BM) biopsies and 62 biopsies obtained at treatment day 29 from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients with B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL showed higher RFD as compared to patients with T-cell ALL (P or = 10(-4) presented higher RFD at diagnosis compared to patients with MRD
AIM: To reach consensus among specialists from the Nordic countries on the present state-of-the-art in treatment of undescended testicles. METHODS: A group of specialists in testicular physiology, paediatric surgery/urology, endocrinology, andrology, pathology and anaesthesiology from all the Nordic countries met for two days. Before the meeting, reviews of the literature had been prepared by the participants. RECOMMENDATIONS: The group came to the following unanimous conclusions: (1) In general, hormonal treatment is not recommended, considering the poor immediate results and the possible long term adverse effects on spermatogenesis. Thus, surgery is to be preferred. (2) Orchiopexy should be done between 6 and 12 months of age, or upon diagnosis, if that occurs later. (3) Orchiopexy before age one year should only be done at centres with both paediatric surgeons/urologists and paediatric anaesthesiologists. (4) If a testis is found to be undescended at any age after 6 months, the patient should be referred for surgery--to paediatric rather than general surgeons/urologists if the boy is less than one year old or if he has bilateral or non-palpable testes, or if he has got relapse of cryptorchidism.