Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among athletes, and it can negatively affect physical performance. At the same time, most of the available data were obtained from untrained individuals of various ages, and published studies performed in athletes led to contradictory conclusions. Methods: This cohort prospective study examined the serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH)D) and its association with running speed and muscle power in 131 young football players (mean age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). Results: 25(OH)D levels were below reference in 42.8% (serum 25(OH)D
It has been previously observed that athletes of certain origin nationality dominate particular sports; however, this phenomenon has been less studied in cross-country (XC) skiing, especially with regards to performance-related aspects, such as pacing. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of nationality on pacing strategies of XC skiers who finished the "Vasaloppet" from 2004 to 2017. We studied 183,919 finishers (19,465 women and 164,454 men), classified into 15 nationalities, i.e. nationalities with number of finishers larger than 0.25% of the total number of finishers. In women, athletes from Russia (7:47:46 h:min:s) were the fastest and athletes from Denmark (10:01:03 h:min:s) the slowest (p
Knechtle, B, Stjepanovic, M, Knechtle, C, Rosemann, T, Sousa, CV, and Nikolaidis, PT. Physiological responses to swimming repetitive "Ice Miles." J Strength Cond Res 35(2): 487-494, 2021-"Ice Mile" swimming (i.e., 1,608 m in water of below 5° C) is becoming increasingly popular. Since the foundation of the International Ice Swimming Association (IISA) in 2009, official races are held as World Cup Races and World Championships. Ice swimming was a demonstration sport at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. This case study aimed to identify core body temperature and selected hematological and biochemical parameters before and after repeated "Ice Miles." An experienced ice swimmer completed 6 consecutive Ice Miles within 2 days. Three Ice Miles adhered to the strict criteria for the definition of Ice Miles, whereas the other 3 were very close (i.e., 5.2, 6.1, and 6.6° C) to the temperature limit. Swimming times, changes in core body temperatures, and selected urinary and hematological parameters were recorded. The athlete showed after each Ice Mile a metabolic acidosis (i.e., an increase in lactate and TCO2; a decrease in base excess and HCO3-) and an increase in blood glucose, cortisol, and creatine kinase concentration. The decrease in pH correlated significantly and negatively with the increase in cortisol level, indicating that this intense exercise causes a metabolic stress. The change in core body temperature between start and finish was negatively associated with metabolic acidosis. The increase in creatine kinase suggests skeletal muscle damages due to shivering after an Ice Mile. For athletes and coaches, swimming in cold water during Ice Miles leads to a metabolic acidosis, which the swimmer tries to compensate with a respiratory response. Considering the increasing popularity of ice swimming, the findings have practical value for swimmers and practitioners (e.g., coaches, exercise physiologists, and physicians) working with them because our results provide a detailed description of acute physiological responses to repeated swimming in cold conditions. These findings are of importance for athletes and coaches for National Championships and World Championships in Ice Swimming following the IISA rules.
Vitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency and deficiency are highly prevalent in adult soccer players and can exceed 80% even in regions with high insolation; however, the treatment of this condition is often complicated. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in youth Russian soccer players and the efficacy of its treatment. Participants were 131 young male football players (age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). Low vitamin D levels (below 30 ng/mL) were observed in 42.8% of the analyzed participants. These athletes were split in two groups composed of persons with vitamin D deficiency (serum vitamin D below 21 ng/mL) and insufficiency (serum vitamin D in range of 21-29 ng/mL). A dietary supplement of 5000 IU cholecalciferol per day was administered for two months. After the treatment, an average 92% increase in vitamin D concentration was observed (before treatment-19.7 ± 5.4 ng/mL, after treatment-34.7 ± 8.6 ng/mL, p
A recent study investigating the top 10 100-km ultra-marathoners by nationality showed that Japanese runners were the fastest worldwide. This selection to top athletes may lead to a selection bias and the aim of this study was to investigate from where the fastest 100-km ultra-marathoners originate by considering all finishers in 100-km ultra-marathons since 1959.
We analysed data from 150,710 athletes who finished a 100-km ultra-marathon between 1959 and 2016. To get precise estimates and stable density plots we selected only those nationalities with 900 and more finishes resulting in 24 nationalities. Histograms and density plots were performed to study the distribution of race time. Crude mean, standard deviation, median, interquartile range (IQR), mode, skewness and excess of time for each nationality were computed. A linear regression analysis adjusted by sex, age and year was performed to study the race time between the nationalities. Histograms, density and scatter plots showed that some races seemed to have a time limit of 14 hours. From the complete dataset the finishes with more than 14 hours were removed (truncated dataset) and the same descriptive plots and analysis as for the complete dataset were performed again. In addition to the linear regression a truncated regression was performed with the truncated dataset to allow conclusion for the whole sample. To study a potential difference between races at home and races abroad, an interaction term race site home/abroad with nationality was included in the model.
Most of the finishes were achieved by runners from Japan, Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy and USA with more than 260'000 (85%) finishes. Runners from Russia and Hungary were the fastest and runners from Hong Kong and China were the slowest finishers.
In contrast to existing findings investigating the top 10 by nationality, this analysis showed that ultra-marathoners from Russia, not Japan, were the fastest 100-km ultra-marathoners worldwide when considering all races held since 1959.
The present retrospective study intended to determine age, performance, the role of nationality and participation trends across calendar years in runners competing in "Comrades Marathon", the ultra-marathon with the longest tradition and the highest number of finishers worldwide. We analysed 235,467 finishers (40,211 women and 195,256 men) competing between 1994 and 2017. In women and men, Russians were the fastest (12.55 ± 2.03 km/h and 12.24 ± 2.93 km/h, respectively) and Indians the slowest (7.87 ± 0.64 km/h and 7.91 ± 0.60 km/h) (p
It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the "Engadin Ski Marathon." All athletes (n = 197,125) who finished the "Engadin Ski Marathon" between 1998 and 2016 were considered. More than two-thirds of the finishers (72.5% in women and 69.6% in men) were Swiss skiers, followed by German, Italian, and French athletes in both sexes. Most of the Swiss finishers were from Canton of Zurich (20.5%), Grisons (19.2%), and Berne (10.3%). Regarding performance, the Russians were the fastest and the British the slowest. Considering local athletes, finishers from Canton of Uri and Glarus were the fastest and those from Canton of Geneva and Basel the slowest. Based on the findings of the present study, it was concluded that local athletes were not the fastest in the "Engadin Ski Marathon." Future studies need to investigate other cross-country skiing races in order to find the nationalities and regions of the fastest cross-country skiers.