Previous literature, although not consistent, suggests that moderate alcohol consumption might be associated with decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in women. Thus, we examined the association between alcohol intake and the incidence of RCC by analyzing data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective cohort of 59,237 women, aged 40-76 years, who, at baseline in 1987-1990, were cancer free and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire including questions about alcohol consumption. Through June 30, 2004, 132 incident cases of RCC were diagnosed. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate age and body mass index (BMI) adjusted rate ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Women who consumed >4.3 grams per day of alcohol (ethanol) had nonsignificantly lower risk of RCC than did women who consumed or = 55 years of age at entry into the cohort, corresponding risk estimates were RR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.10-1.05, p for trend = 0.04 and among women with BMI >25 kg/m2, RR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.97, p for trend = 0.04. Consistent with these findings, women who drank 1 or more servings of total alcoholic beverages per week had lower RCC risk than did women who drank less (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94); the corresponding estimate for women > or = 55 years of age was RR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88. Results from our prospective cohort study of middle-aged and elderly women indicate that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased risk of RCC.
BACKGROUND: An analysis of dietary patterns or combinations of foods may provide insight regarding the influence of diet on the risk of colon and rectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: A primary aim of the Dietary Patterns and Cancer (DIETSCAN) Project was to develop and apply a common methodologic approach to study dietary patterns and cancer in 4 European cohorts: the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (Finland-ATBC), the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) on Diet and Cancer, the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC), and the Ormoni e Dieta nella Eziologia dei Tumori (Italy-ORDET). Three cohorts (ATBC, NLCS, and SMC) provided data on colon and rectal cancer for the present study. DESIGN: The cohorts were established between 1985 and 1992; follow-up data were obtained from national cancer registries. The participants completed validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis, conducted within each cohort, identified 3-5 stable dietary patterns. Two dietary patterns-Vegetables and Pork, Processed Meats, Potatoes (PPP)-were common across all cohorts. After adjustment for potential confounders, PPP was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in the SMC women (quintile 4(multivariate) relative risk: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.34; P for trend = 0.01). PPP was also associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer in the ATBC men (quintile 4(multivariate) relative risk: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.07, 4.57; P for trend = 0.05). Neither pattern was associated with the risk of colon or rectal cancer in the NLCS women and men. CONCLUSION: Although certain dietary patterns may be consistent across European countries, associations between these dietary patterns and the risk of colon and rectal cancer are not conclusive.
Findings of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk have been inconclusive. To study the association between fruits and vegetables and risk of RCC in a population-based prospective cohort study of Swedish women, we collected dietary information from 61,000 women age 40-76 years by a food-frequency questionnaire. During 13.4 years of follow-up 122 women developed RCC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Women consuming 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables daily had a relative risk of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.26-1.34) in comparison to them consuming less than once daily. When fruits and vegetables were examined separately, those who consumed more than 75 servings per month of fruits or vegetables had multivariate relative risk of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.27-1.25) and 0.60 (95% CI = 0.31-1.17) respectively, compared to those consuming 11 or less servings per month. Within the group of fruits, the strongest inverse association was observed for banana (p = 0.07 by Wald test). The risk of RCC increased monotonically with increasing intake frequencies of fruit juice (p-value for trend = 0.10). Within the group of vegetables, the strongest inverse association was observed for root vegetables (p = 0.03 by Wald test). The risk of RCC decreased with increasing consumption frequencies of white cabbage (p for trend = 0.07). Frequent consumption of salad vegetables (once or more per day) decreased the risk by 40% (RR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.30-1.22), in comparison to no consumption. Our results suggested that high consumption of fruits and vegetables might be associated with reduced risk of RCC.
Links between specific foods and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are not well established. Dietary patterns may be a better predictor of RCC risk. Our aim was to identify and examine major dietary patterns and their relation to the risk of RCC in a large prospective cohort study of Swedish women. Complete dietary information was available from a FFQ from 46,572 women aged 40-76 y at baseline. We conducted factor analysis to identify dietary patterns. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs. During a mean of 14.3 y of follow-up, we identified 93 cases of RCC. We observed 3 major dietary patterns in the cohort: Healthy (vegetables, tomato, fish, fruits, poultry, whole grains), Western (sweets, processed meat, refined grains, margarine/butter, high-fat dairy products, fried potato, soft drinks, meat) and Drinker (wine, hard liquor, beer, snacks) pattern. Higher Healthy pattern scores were not significantly associated with decreased risk of RCC (highest vs. lowest tertile RR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.45-1.48 and RR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.27-1.10 among women
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the age-specific prevalence and severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among Swedish men, the intercorrelations between different symptoms, and to assess quality of life and health-seeking behaviour among men with LUTS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 1997, an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, together with other questions about lifestyle, was mailed to all men aged 45-79 years living in two counties in Sweden; the analyses included 39 928 men. RESULTS: Overall, 18.5% and 4.8% of the men were moderately and severely symptomatic; the prevalence of at least one symptom was 83%. LUTS were strongly age-dependent, with 1.8% of severe symptoms among men aged 45-49 years and increasing to 9.7% among those 75-79 years old. Frequent urination was the most common symptom among men aged 70 years. Symptoms like hesitancy, poor flow and intermittency were highly correlated with each other (Spearman coefficients 0.56-0.60). There was a high correlation between the IPSS and a poor score for quality of life resulting from the bothersomeness of LUTS (r = 0.70). Among symptomatic subjects, 36% reported a poor quality of life (fairly bad, very bad or terrible). Only 29% of symptomatic subjects (IPSS >7) reported that they had been diagnosed previously for their urinary problems, and only 11% received medication for that. CONCLUSION: Although the prevalence of LUTS in Sweden is high, the percentage of men whose quality of life is substantially affected is much lower.