Priority lists have been formulated in several countries and cut-backs can be a threat to leukaemia treatment. We analysed the costs in different phases of disease for 54 conventionally treated patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Thirty-two patients reached CR 1, seven patients are still alive as of May 1994. We found a cost per week and patient of 17,334 Swedish Crowns (SEK) (U.K. 1 pound = 10.57 and U.S. $1 = 5.91, 1990) in induction phase, 1854 in remission phase and 10,529 SEK in relapse phase. In the terminal phase 10% of the total cost was spent. The quality of life of the patients in relapse is discussed and palliative treatment is emphasized.
Ethylene oxide, a gaseous sterilant extensively used within health care facilities, is known to be a mutagen in bacteria and in human lymphocytes. The Environmental Protection Agency as well as the National Institue of Occupational Safety and Health have recently stipulated certain conditions for the use of ethylene oxide despite the lack of case reports or epidemiologic studies concerning carcinogenicity. We report three cases of leukemia that occurred between 1972 and 1977 in a relatively small group of Swedish workers exposed to ethylene oxide. According to national statistics, 0.2 cases of leukemia would have been expected. The time-weighted average ethylene oxide concentration was 20+/-10 ppm.
This is a prospective multi-center study in which patients with aregenerative anaemia were treated with a standardized high dosage regime of an anabolic steroid (oxymetholone, Anasteron). 53 patients were included and divided into two groups according to bone marrow cellularity. Furthermore the hypocellular group was subdivided in order to make comparison with earlier studies possible. In the hypocellular group, the frequency of remission was 56% and the 2-year-survival from the onset of symptoms was 75%. This is longer than in some earlier studies, perhaps because of possible differences in etiology and/or because of the effect of systematic high dosage, long term androgen therapy. Patient selection was minimized and was not considered to be of major importance. Patients with hypercellular marrows, on the other hand, responded poorly to androgens. In this group 63% died of acute leukaemia, which confirms earlier suggestions that this form of aregenerative anaemia, frequently is of a preleukaemic nature.