AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp. RESULTS: Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r = -0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r = -0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r = -0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r = -0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r = -0.24; p
OBJECTIVES. To compare cardiovascular risk factor levels between non-westernized Melanesians, apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease, nd healthy Swedish populations, and to analyse, among adult Melanesians, relations with age, sex and smoking status. DESIGN. Cross-sectional survey. SUBJECTS. (i) Traditional horticulturalists in Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea, uninfluenced by western diet. this study tested 151 males and 69 females aged 14-87 years with 76% and 80% smokers over 20 years. (ii) Healthy Swedish reference populations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index, circumferences of waist, pelvis and mid upper arm, triceps skinfold thickness, fasting serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, estimated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein (a). RESULTS. Compared to Sweden, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness were substantially lower in Kitava, where all subjects > or = 40 years were below Swedish medians. Among males > or = 20 and females > or = 60 years systolic blood pressure was lower in Kitavans. Fasting serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were 10-30% lower in Kitavan males > or = 40 and females > or = 60 years. Triglycerides were higher in Kitavans aged 20-39. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not differ while apolipoprotein A1 was lower in Kitavans. Apolipoprotein (a) tended to be lower in Kitavans, but the differences were small. CONCLUSIONS. Of the analysed variables, leanness and low diastolic blood pressure seem to offer the best explanations for the apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in Kitava. The lower serum cholesterol may provide some additional benefit. Differences in dietary habits may explain the findings.
Serum lipoprotein (LP) concentrations were determined and LP patterns were classified in 261 middle-aged men, recruited from a health examination survey, with serum lipid values above the 80th percentile of the same population. Individuals with hyperlipoproteinaemia (HLP) and normolipidaemic controls were characterized also regarding family history of cardiovascular disease, socio-economic factors and clinical and laboratory variables. Subjects with HLP type IV-V and IIB were overweight and showed hyperuricaemia and hyperinsulinaemia compared with normolipidaemic controls and subjects with HLP type IIA. The latter showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In spite of being overweight, subjects with HLP type III showed normal fasting values of insulin and uric acid in serum and normal early insulin response to intravenous glucose. The glucose tolerance did not differ significantly between the groups. Men with HLP types IV-V had predominantly sedentary occupations, in contrast to those with type IIA. There were significantly more smokers in the groups with HLP type IIB and IV-V than in the control group. Thus, individuals with different types of HLP tend to show different metabolic profiles but also different socioeconomic and clinical patterns, suggesting that exogenous factors are of importance in the expression of the LP abnormalities.
Because of a very high mortality in ischaemic heart disease in Kiruna, Sweden, a case-control study was undertaken to study risk factors (e.g. life style, hypertension, psycho-social factors, and diet and serum lipids). As part of this study the dietary habit, lipoproteins and composition of fatty acids in cholesterol esters in serum and adipose tissue triglycerides were studied in Kiruna and in an age-matched reference cohort in Uppsala. There were small, non-significant differences in these variables between cases and controls in Kiruna and between the Kiruna cohort and a reference cohort in Uppsala. Main differences in the inter-city comparison were low levels of gamma tocopherol in serum, high levels of palmitic acid (16:0) and low levels of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum cholesterol esters and adipose tissue triglycerides in Kiruna which suggest dietary differences and different anti-oxidative status in the two populations.
Departments of Public Health and Caring Sciences (J.S., B.V., H.O.L.) and Medical Sciences (L.L., B.A.), Uppsala University, Sweden, and Department of Nutrition (A.A.), KTL (National Public Health Institute), Helsinki, Finland.
BACKGROUND:-Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Causes other than hypertension have not previously been investigated longitudinally. The aim of the present study was to determine hemodynamic, metabolic, and psychosocial predictors at 50 years of age for the prevalence of echocardiographic LVH and geometric subtypes at age 70 by use of a large sample of men from the general population followed up for 20 years. Methods and Results-In 1970 to 1973, all men born from 1920 to 1924 and residing in Uppsala County, Sweden, were invited to participate in a health survey aimed at identifying risk factors for cardiovascular disease. At a reinvestigation 20 years later, echocardiographic left ventricular mass index was determined in 475 subjects. A 1-SD increase in body mass index, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, fasting LDL/HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, or the serum cholesterol ester proportion of several saturated fatty acids or oleic acid at age 50 significantly increased the odds of having LVH at age 70 by 27% to 41%, whereas an increase in linoleic acid proportion was protective. Almost all metabolic predictors were independent of ischemic heart disease, valvular disease, and use of antihypertensive medication at age 70. CONCLUSIONS:-Dyslipidemia and indices of a low dietary intake of linoleic acid and high intake of saturated and monounsaturated fats, as well as hypertension and obesity, at age 50 predicted the prevalence of LVH 20 years later in this prospective longitudinal cohort study, thereby suggesting that lipids may be important in the origin of LVH.
BACKGROUND: There is a well-established inverse relation between education and mortality from cardiovascular disease and cancer. The reasons for this are still in part unclear. We aimed to investigate whether differences in traditional vascular risk factors, adult height, physical activity, and biomarkers of fatty acid and antioxidant intake, could explain this association. METHODS: In all, 2301 50-year-old men in Uppsala, Sweden (82% of the background population) were examined with regard to educational level, blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index, serum lipids, smoking, body height, physical activity, serum beta carotene, alpha tocopherol, selenium, and serum fatty acids in cholesterol esters. Cause-specific mortality was registered 25 years later. RESULTS: Low education was associated with a higher rate of mortality from cardiovascular disease (crude relative risk [RR] = 1.67, 95% CI : 1.17-2.39), and from cancer (crude RR = 1.94, 95% CI : 1.21-3.10), compared to high educational attainment. Men with high education had an overall more beneficial risk factor profile concerning traditional cardiovascular risk factors, physical activity, and biomarkers of dietary intake of antioxidants and fat. After adjustment for all examined risk factors, the inverse gradient between education and cardiovascular mortality disappeared (RR in low education = 1.01. 95% CI : 0.67-1.52). Controlling for smoking, physical activity and dietary biomarkers explained less than half of the excess cancer mortality in the lower educational groups. Smoking (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI : 1.37-2.61), and high proportions of palmitoleic acid in serum cholesterol esters (adjusted RR per 1 SD = 1.39, 95% CI : 1.07-1.82) predicted cancer mortality, independently of all other factors. There were no independent relations between serum antioxidants and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that modifiable lifestyle factors mediate the inverse gradient between education and death from cerebro- and cardiovascular disease. Smoking, physical activity and dietary factors explained half of the excess cancer mortality in lower educated groups. Further studies are needed to explore the proposed association between palmitoleic acid, a marker of high intake of animal and dairy fat, and cancer.
Comment In: Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Oct;30(5):1126-811689533
From the Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, UppsalaLantmännen R&D, StockholmBollnäs Heart Clinic, Mitt Hjärta, BollnäsSchool of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
Abstract. Adamsson V, Reumark A, Fredriksson I-B, Hammarstr?m E, Vessby B, Johansson G, Ris?rus U (Uppsala University, Uppsala; Lantm?nnen R&D, Stockholm; Bolln?s Heart Clinic, Mitt Hj?rta, Bolln?s; Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden). Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET). J Intern Med 2011; 269: 150-159. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on cardiovascular risk factors. Design and subjects. In a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET) conducted in Sweden, 88 mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects were randomly assigned to an ad libitum ND or control diet (subjects' usual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Participants in the ND group were provided with all meals and foods. Primary outcome measurements were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). The ND was rich in high-fibre plant foods, fruits, berries, vegetables, whole grains, rapeseed oil, nuts, fish and low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars and saturated fats. Results. The ND contained 27%, 52%, 19% and 2% of energy from fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol, respectively. In total, 86 of 88 subjects randomly assigned to diet completed the study. Compared with controls, there was a decrease in plasma cholesterol (-16%, P
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate a model for dietary treatment of hyperlipidaemia in primary health care. DESIGN--The participating men received their initial dietary instructions from a dietitian, in a group, together with their wives. Thereafter the nurses used a checklist to evaluate dietary compliance throughout the year. The participants completed a simplified food frequency questionnaire six times during the study period. RESULTS--Throughout the year the total body weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio decreased significantly. HDL cholesterol was significantly increased after one year. SETTING--The Industrial Health Care Centre, Ovansiljans Företagshälsovård AB in Mora, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS--35 men, aged 39-63 years (mean 51), with hyperlipidaemia, discovered at a health survey of persons attending an industrial health care centre. CONCLUSION--A simplified model for treatment of hyperlipidaemic patients can improve the dietary habits in the long term.
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Types of dietary fat have been related to components of the metabolic syndrome. Serum fatty acid composition mainly reflects dietary fat intake, but also endogenous fatty acid synthesis catalysed by Delta-desaturases. It is not known whether alterations of fatty acid composition or desaturase activities predict metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated fatty acid composition in serum cholesteryl esters and estimated desaturase activities in 1,558 50-year-old men taking part in a population-based cohort study. The follow-up time was 20 years. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), Delta6 (D6D) and Delta5 (D5D) desaturases were estimated as precursor to fatty acid ratios. RESULTS: High activity of estimated SCD-1 (odds ratio=1.29, p