The effects on blood lipids and blood pressure of a diet corresponding to present Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, i.e. less than 30% of energy from fat and with a fibre content exceeding 3 g/MJ, were studied in 18 men and 12 women (mean age, 24 years) under strict dietary control over 8 months. Blood sampling, blood pressure and body weight measurement were performed at four occasions on their habitual diet and once a month during the intervention period. An age-matched control group (17 men, 8 women) was followed with monthly measurements parallel to the intervention group. The habitual diets, assessed by 7-day records, showed an average fat content corresponding to 36% of energy. Initial levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (X +/- SD) were 4.21 +/- 0.61 and 1.23 +/- 0.23 mmol/l for the men in the intervention group; 4.35 +/- 0.79 and 1.21 +/- 0.26 mmol/l for the male controls; 4.61 +/- 0.59 and 1.46 +/- 0.31 mmol/l for the women in the intervention group and 4.48 +/- 0.64 and 1.48 +/- 0.29 mmol/l for the female controls. Significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol throughout the experimental period were seen for both sexes in the intervention group. Total cholesterol fell 0.49 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.41-0.56) in the male subjects and 0.49 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.39-0.59) in the female subjects. The fall in HDL cholesterol was 0.16 mmol/l (95% C: 0.13-0.18) and 0.18 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.12-0.23), respectively. Total cholesterol changes were independent of initial values. All subjects were normotensive at the start of the study with an average blood pressure of 122/68 mmHg for men and 112/68 mmHg for the women. Systolic blood pressure dropped gradually and significantly in the male subjects of the intervention group. A minimum of 6 mmHg below initial values was noted after six months of dietary intervention. No significant changes in dietary intake and blood lipids were observed in the control group. Thus, changes of present dietary habits of young healthy Danish subjects to an intake in accordance with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 1989 will favourably affect suggested risk factors for disease.
Three hundred and seventy-four general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark filled in a questionnaire on attitudes to include information on gender and diet in the strategy for prevention of coronary heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and overweight/underweight. Risk factors for disease in general were ranked as follows: smoking, alcohol, stress, diet, physical exercise, heredity and hygiene. The patients' lack of motivation, insufficient time for each patient, and inadequate knowledge about nutrition were stated as barriers to dietary counselling. The GPs stated that the gender of the patient was important only to the counselling on osteoporosis. Lack of time and insufficient knowledge were perceived as barriers for including gender specific issues in prevention. It is concluded that GPs consider dietary counselling important but lack time and knowledge. The results point at a need for better pre- and postgraduate training in nutrition, and for a better reimbursement system for time spent on prevention.
The prevalence of osteoporosis in developing countries is low compared to most industrialised countries despite an apparent low Ca intake. It is possible, however, that food surveys have overlooked important Ca sources in developing countries. Small fish eaten with the bones can be a rich source of Ca, even though Ca from bone may be considered unavailable for absorption. In the present study, absorption of Ca from indigenous Bengali small fish was compared with the Ca absorption from milk. Ca absorption from single meals was determined in 19 healthy men and women (21-28 y). Each subject received two meal types on two separate occasions. Both meals consisted of white wheat bread, butter and ultra pure water with the main Ca source being either small Bengali fish (397 mg Ca in total) or skimmed milk (377 mg Ca in total). The meals were extrinsically labelled with 47Ca, and whole-body retention was measured on day 8, 12, 15 and 19 after intake of each meal. The labelling procedure was evaluated by an in vitro method. The calculated absorption of Ca as measured with 47Ca whole-body retention was 23.8 +/- 5.6% from the fish meal and 21.8 +/- 6.1% from the milk meal (mean +/- SD), which was not significantly different (p = 0.52). Even after correction for an incomplete isotope exchange, as indicated by the in vitro study, Ca absorption was similar from the two meal types. It was concluded that Ca absorption from small Bengali fish was comparable that from skimmed milk, and that these fish may represent a good source of Ca.
The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Copper (Cu) is essential for antioxidant enzymes in vivo and animal studies show that Cu deficiency is accompanied by increased atherogenesis and LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Nevertheless, Cu has been proposed as a pro-oxidant in vivo and is routinely used to induce lipid peroxidation in vitro. Given the dual role of Cu as an in vivo antioxidant and an in vitro pro-oxidant, a multicenter European study (FOODCUE) was instigated to provide data on the biological effects of increased dietary Cu. Four centers, Northern Ireland (coordinator), England, Denmark, and France, using different experimental protocols, examined the effect of Cu supplementation (3 or 6 mg/d) on top of normal Cu dietary intakes or Cu-controlled diets (0.7/1.6/6.0 mg/d), on Cu-mediated and peroxynitrite-initiated LDL oxidation in apparently healthy volunteers. Each center coordinated its own supplementation regimen and all samples were subsequently transported to Northern Ireland where lipid peroxidation analysis was completed. The results from all centers showed that dietary Cu supplementation had no effect on Cu- or peroxynitrite-induced LDL susceptibility to oxidation. These data show that high intakes (up to 6 mg Cu) for extended periods do not promote LDL susceptibility to in vitro-induced oxidation.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a dietary treatment programme on blood cholesterol concentration in hypercholesterolaemic patients in general practice and to analyse subjectively experienced side-effects. DESIGN: A 1-year parallel trial comparing a new treatment programme with conventional treatment. SETTING: General practitioners in Roskilde county, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 355 men and women, aged 20-60 years, with a persistent blood cholesterol concentration above age- and gender-specific cut-off points (265 in an intervention group and 90 in a control group). INTERVENTION: A treatment strategy based on collaboration between doctor and dietitian using individual dietary advice and feedback from measured biological parameters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum lipids, body weight, blood pressure, dietary behaviour, health parameters, quality of life parameters and acceptance by patients and general practitioners. RESULTS: Total blood cholesterol concentration decreased by 14% (1.07 mmol l(-1), P 30) reduced body weight by 6% (P 110 mmHg, respectively. Risk score decreased and self-assessed health, physical and psychological well-being improved. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment strategy tested proved to be efficient, without side-effects and well accepted by patients and general practitioners. The results strongly suggest that hypercholesterolaemia can efficiently be treated non-pharmacologically in general practice.
Food and energy intakes in diabetic children, 7-9 and 12-14 years of age, were studied by the 7-d record method. The mean duration of diabetes in the younger group was 3.0 years and in the older group 4.2. The children had 3 main meals and 3.4 light meals daily. The median daily number of sandwiches was 7, often offered as snacks. All children used a low-fat margarine, low-fat cheese and low-fat milk. Sweets and diabetic food were seldom used. Of the energy intake protein contributed 18 per cent, fat 32 per cent and carbohydrates 50 per cent, including sucrose 2 per cent. Mean daily intake of fibre was 20 g. Compared to healthy children of the same age and from the same areas of Sweden the diabetics had a more regular meal pattern, their energy intakes did not differ, but the diet of diabetics was lower in fat and sucrose and higher in protein. The mean height, weight and BMI did not differ from healthy children.
We served a low-fat (28% of energy) high-fibre (3.3 g/MJ) diet according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (REC diet), and a high-fat diet (39% of energy) corresponding to the average Danish diet (DANE diet) to 21 healthy middle-aged individuals in a two times two weeks cross-over study. The REC diet resulted in lower serum concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (medians: 2.77 vs 3.04 mmol/l, p