The strongest correlations between coffee consumption and serum cholesterol levels have been found in countries where people drink coffee brewed by mixing coffee grounds directly in boiling water (boiled coffee). In the present study of a population-based sample of 1625 middle-aged subjects (the Northern Sweden MONICA Study), approximately 50% of the participants were drinking boiled coffee, and 50% were drinking filtered coffee. Consumers of boiled coffee had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels than consumers of filtered coffee. Subjects who drank boiled coffee reported a higher intake of fat. A linear multiple regression analysis with serum cholesterol as the dependent variable confirmed that boiled coffee was an important independent determinant of cholesterol levels. We conclude that subjects who drink boiled coffee have higher serum cholesterol levels than those who drink filtered coffee, and that the most likely explanation for this finding lies in the type of brewing method.
AIMS: The aim was to examine the early prognostic value of a combination of a continuous 12-lead ECG and troponin T in patients with chest pain and an ECG non-diagnostic for acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: ST monitoring was performed and samples for analysis of troponin T were collected from admission for 12 h from 598 patients. After 6 h, the peak value of troponin T in 27% was > or = 0.10 microg.l(- 1), while 15% had had ST episodes, defined as transient ST deviations of at least 0.1 mV. Both a troponin T > or = 0.10 microg. l(-1) and ST episodes predicted worsening outcome. After 30 days, there were 6.8% and 1.4% (P or = 0.10 microg.l(-1), respectively. The corresponding event rates in patients with and without ST episodes were 10% and 1.6% (P
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2000 Sep;21(17):1403-510952833
The aim of the present investigation was to see if alternative histopathological parameters could identify a smaller high risk group than commonly seen using routine histopathological parameters. The material consisted of 150 primary resected patients of FIGO Ia-Ic diagnosed as endometrial carcinoma and 12 cases of atypical hyperplasias which were suspected to contain small areas of carcinoma. The patients were treated from December 1979 to April 1993 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Those with deep myometrial invasion (> 50%) were given external radiotherapy (20-30 Gy) postoperatively. The follow-up period ranged from 2.5 to 5 years with 116 patients followed-up for more than 5 years. As no therapy was given before surgery we could investigate histopathologic variables such as degree of differentiation and cytology, number of mitoses per high power field (x 40), nuclear polymorphism, mode of invasion, the extension of myometrial invasion, vessel invasion as well as grade of lymphocyte reaction around the tumour cells. We found the degree of differentiation, vessel invasion, number of mitoses, mode of invasion and cytologic abberation to be significant prognostic parameters. The frequency of deep myometrial invasion (> 50%) was extremly high (51/150 = 33%). However, this usually strong parameter was only significant when comparing stage Ia with Ic. Thus the prognostic capacity of myometrial invasion is diminished in primary hysterectomized patients. In the regression analyses only vascular invasion remained significant. By combining vascular invasion with the degree of differentiation we diminished the high-risk group consisting of candidates for further investigation and treatment. Thus a high risk group consisting of poorly differentiated carcinomas with vascular invasion was constructed comprising 24 of 139 patients with a mortality rate of 60%.
From December 1980 to February 1991 24 patients with endometrial hyperplasia after estrogen treatment were followed-up at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. All were referred for post-menopausal bleeding. They were followed-up with abrasio three and nine months after the initial diagnosis. Seven patients demonstrated cystic glandular hyperplasia (CGH), six adenomatous hyperplasia (AD) and eleven atypical hyperplasia (AT). In the CGH-group five revealed atrophic endometria and one developed into endometrial carcinoma. In the AD-group two patients refused follow-up, four had atrophic endometria, in the AT-group five developed atrophia, one refused follow-up, one developed CGH, while three developed carcinoma. All four carcinomas in the series developed within the first three months of follow-up. The frequency of carcinomatous development was much higher for exogen estrogen induced hyperplasias compared to earlier findings for endogenously estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasias. It is recommended that non-opposed estrogen treatment should be used in rare circumstances under close follow-up and that patients developing endometrial hyperplasias are followed-up until the hyperplastic changes have disappeared.
Not much is known about the patients' decision time in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of the survey was therefore to describe patients' decision time and factors associated with this parameter in ACS.
We conducted a national survey comprising intensive cardiac care units at 11 hospitals in Sweden in which patients with ACS diagnosis and symptoms onset outside hospital participated. Main outcome measures were patients' decision time and factors associated with patients' decision time.
In all, 1939 patients took part in the survey. The major factors associated with a shorter patient decision time were: 1) ST-elevation ACS, 2) associated symptoms such as vertigo or near syncope, 3) interpreting the symptoms as cardiac in origin, 4) pain appearing suddenly and reaching a maximum within minutes, 5) having knowledge of the importance of quickly seeking medical care and 6) experiencing the symptoms as frightening. The following aspects of the disease were associated with a longer decision time: 1) pain was localised in the back and 2) symptom onset at home when alone.
A number of factors, including the type of ACS, the type and localisation of symptoms, the place where symptoms occurred, patients' interpretation of symptoms and knowledge were all associated with patients' decision time in connection with ACS.
BACKGROUND: The overall aim was to test whether low birthweight (LBW) in newborns is associated with the risk indicators for cardiovascular disease in early middle age, even in a welfare society. Further, a possible interaction of LBW and heredity for myocardial infarction or stroke was investigated. METHODS: Overall, subjects were identified as newborns in a local birth register, and as adult participants, in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (n = 7876). Outcome measures such as systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, triglycerides and anthropometrics were investigated (at age 29-41 years) in relation to LBW. RESULTS: Low birthweight was associated with increased SBP and DBP. Triglycerides were elevated among women with LBW and total cholesterol was elevated in men with LBW. Heredity for myocardial infarction or stroke interacted with LBW, and indicated a synergistic effect on the level of SBP. The BMI did not differ between LBW and normal birthweight subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our interpretation is that the 'fetal origins' hypothesis' is valid for middle-age subjects who grow up in a welfare society. The population attributable proportions that result from different exposures to LBW were relatively small overall; from a public health perspective, heredity was more important than LBW for elevated SBP.
Comment In: Int J Epidemiol. 2001 Aug;30(4):862-311511617
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic capability of clinical stage, tumour differentiation, myometrial invasion, age and DNA content in endometrial carcinoma. Then to use the results to identify a small, high risk group suitable for more intensive adjuvant therapy. DESIGN: A prospective five year follow up between June 1980 and June 1987. SETTING: Department of Oncology, gynaecological section, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Endometrial tissue was obtained immediately prior to treatment for flow cytometric DNA analysis. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and fifty-one patients referred for treatment. INTERVENTIONS: None. RESULTS: Age, myometrial invasion of greater than 50%, and number of DNA populations (ploidy) were the only significant parameters related to survival. By combining myometrial invasion and number of DNA populations, we divided the patients into four groups. A very small high risk group was identified (7%) with a low survival rate (61%). Two intermediate groups with either myometrial invasion exceeding 50% or with more than one DNA population present constituted 34% of the patients and these had an overall survival rate of 75% and a relatively large low risk group of 59% of the patients (with a survival rate of 95%) was constructed out of those without deep myometrial invasion and demonstrating only one DNA population. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that number of DNA populations and depth of myometrial invasion could be combined to identify a small high risk group (7%) with a low survival rate (61%) suitable for adjuvant therapy.
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of severe mental illness (SMI) on myocardial infarction survival and determine the influence of risk factor burden, myocardial infarction severity and different treatments.
This population-based cohort study, conducted in Sweden during the period 1997-2010, included all patients with a first diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the Swedish nationwide myocardial infarction register SWEDEHEART (n = 209 592). Exposure was defined as a diagnosis of SMI (i.e. bipolar disorder or schizophrenia) in the national patient register prior to infarction. Bias-minimized logistic regression models were identified using directed acyclic graphs and included covariates age, gender, smoking, diabetes, previous cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction characteristics and treatment.
The outcomes were 30-day and 1-year mortality, obtained through linkage with national population registers.
Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 442) and schizophrenia (n = 541) were younger (mean age 68 and 63 years, respectively) than those without SMI (n = 208 609; mean age 71 years). The overall 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 10% and 18%, respectively. Compared with patients without SMI, patients with SMI had higher 30-day [odds ratio (OR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.56] and 1-year mortality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.74-2.56) in the fully adjusted model. The highest mortality was observed amongst patients with schizophrenia (30-day mortality: OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.88-3.54; 1-year mortality: OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.98-3.29).
SMI is associated with a markedly higher mortality after myocardial infarction, also after accounting for contributing factors. It is imperative to identify the reasons for this higher mortality.
Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to have strong and consistent associations with a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors. Yet the associations between hyperinsulinemia and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been weak, at best, and often inconsistent. Most previous studies have analyzed the insulin level using a radioimmunoassay method, which does not separate proinsulin from intact (true) insulin. New methods separating the two have demonstrated that proinsulin may be at least as strongly or even more strongly associated than intact insulin with a CHD-promoting risk factor profile. In this incident case-control study of a nondiabetic population, 67 cases of first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were compared with 127 individually age- and sex-matched controls. Blood sampling was collected prior to disease outcome. Proinsulin and intact insulin levels were measured using highly sensitive two-site sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The highest quartile of proinsulin, in contrast to intact insulin, showed a greater than threefold increase in AMI compared with the lowest quartile, with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 3.5 and 1.2 to 9.9, respectively. The increased risk of AMI persisted after controlling for total cholesterol, smoking status, diastolic blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication, and disappeared after additional control was used for the body mass index. High levels of proinsulin, even in a nondiabetic population, seem to be a strong and independent risk factor for AMI. The mechanism underlying the relationship may be direct via effects on fibrinolysis or, probably more plausibly, indirect, where proinsulin is a marker of an underlying metabolic disturbance.