Several studies have examined the association between body mass index and infertility. We compared body mass index in 597 women diagnosed with ovulatory infertility at seven infertility clinics in the United States and Canada with 1,695 primiparous controls who recently gave birth. The obese women (body mass index > or = 27) had a relative risk of ovulatory infertility of 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.2-4.4], compared with women of lower body weight (body mass index 20-24.9). We found a small effect in women with a body mass index of 25-26.9 or less than 17 [relative risk (RR) = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9; and RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.7-3.9, respectively). We conclude that the risk of ovulatory infertility is highest in obese women but is also slightly increased in moderately overweight and underweight women.
Between 1979 and 1985, 552 Ionescu-Shiley valves were implanted in 511 patients. The Hancock valve was implanted in 122 patients (129 valves) between 1982 and 1983. Sixty percent of procedures were isolated aortic valve replacements. In the Ionescu series, 59% of these were 19 or 21 mm valves while only 15% of the Hancock valves were of this size. For isolated mitral valve replacement, 76% of Ionescu-Shiley valves were 25 to 27 mm, compared to 36% of the Hancock valves. Patient age, sex, prior operations, concomitant surgery (usually coronary bypass), operative mortality and late deaths were similar for both valves. A mean follow-up of 38 months was obtained for each valve population (99% complete) representing a cumulative 1497 patient-years for the Ionescu-Shiley valve and 375.4 patient-years for the Hancock valve. Actuarial survival for the former was 73 +/- 4% at 72 months, and 65 +/- 14% for Hancock valves at 60 months. The frequency of major events during follow-up (thromboembolism, anticoagulant related hemorrhage, bland perivalvular leak and prosthetic valve endocarditis) were similar, but the frequency of primary tissue valve failure was markedly different for the two valves (1.1% per patient-year for Ionescu-Shiley valves and 5.9% for the Hancock valve). The mean interval to replacement of an Ionescu mitral prosthesis was significantly shorter (23.4 months) than for replacement of an aortic prosthesis (42 months) while the mean interval to replacement of an Ionescu aortic and/or a Hancock aortic or mitral were all similar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The durability and function of bovine pericardial valves are dependent upon design, preservation, patient factors (age, sex), and site of valve implantation. In 1983, a shelf recall of all Hancock bovine pericardial valves (HPV) was instituted by the manufacturer. This report represents the results of an organized 5-year follow-up in a hospital Prosthetic Valve Registry of 129 HPV implanted in 122 patients (79 males, 43 females) between May 1982 and April 1985 using echo Doppler and careful clinical evaluation. Mean age was 56 +/- 15 years. There were 81 AVR, 33 MVR, 7 DVR, and 1 TVR. Concomitant coronary bypass was performed in 38 patients (31%). Surgery was on a redo basis in 25 patients (20%), urgent in 14 (11%), and for SBE in 8 patients (7%). There were seven hospital deaths (5.7%). Mean follow-up was 44 months (maximum 66 months) for 114 patients (99% complete), representing 417 patient years. There have been 20 late deaths (18%), of which 7 were directly valve related. Linearized frequency of major events (per pt-yr) was: thromboembolism, 1.6%; anticoagulant related hemorrhage, 0.8% (1 late death); prosthetic valve endocarditis 1.3%; primary tissue failure, 5.8%. Patient symptomatology was a more accurate predictor of bioprosthetic failure requiring reoperation than echo Doppler studies, which were completed in 74 of 97 patients examined during scheduled follow-up visits. Twenty-four of the 96 patients (25%) have required re-replacement at a mean interval of 44 months (27-59 months) from initial implantation. This was due to vertical shear starting at the top of the strut anchoring commissural attachments in every case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Although the fetal death rate has declined over the past 30 years among women of all ages, it is unknown whether particular characteristics of the mother, such as age, still affect the risk of fetal death. We undertook a study to determine whether older age, having a first child (nulliparity), or other characteristics of the mother are risk factors for fetal death.
We used data from the McGill Obstetrical Neonatal Database to evaluate risk factors for fetal death among all deliveries at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal (n = 94,346) from 1961 through 1993. Data were available for two time periods (1961 through 1974 and 1978 through 1993); data for 1975 through 1977 have not been entered into the data base and were therefore not included. Using logistic regression, we estimated the effect of specific maternal characteristics and complications of pregnancy on the risk of fetal death.
The fetal death rate decreased significantly from 11.5 per 1000 total births (including live births and stillbirths) in the 1960s to 3.2 per 1000 in 1990 through 1993 (P
Comment In: N Engl J Med. 1995 Oct 12;333(15):1002-47666897