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Canada's evacuation policy for pregnant First Nations women: Resignation, resilience, and resistance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298294
Source
Women Birth. 2018 Dec; 31(6):479-488
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-2018
Author
Karen M Lawford
Audrey R Giles
Ivy L Bourgeault
Author Affiliation
School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Carleton University, Dunton Tower 1221, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada. Electronic address: karen.lawford@carleton.ca.
Source
Women Birth. 2018 Dec; 31(6):479-488
Date
Dec-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Delivery, Obstetric
Female
Health Policy
Health Services Accessibility
Health Services, Indigenous
Humans
Indians, North American
Interviews as Topic
Inuits
Male
Midwifery - methods
Parturition - ethnology
Politics
Pregnancy
Pregnant Women - ethnology - psychology
Qualitative Research
Resilience, Psychological
Rural Population
Young Adult
Abstract
Aboriginal peoples in Canada are comprised of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit. Health care services for First Nations who live on rural and remote reserves are mostly provided by the Government of Canada through the federal department, Health Canada. One Health Canada policy, the evacuation policy, requires all First Nations women living on rural and remote reserves to leave their communities between 36 and 38 weeks gestational age and travel to urban centres to await labour and birth. Although there are a few First Nations communities in Canada that have re-established community birthing and Aboriginal midwifery is growing, most First Nations communities are still reliant on the evacuation policy for labour and birthing services. In one Canadian province, Manitoba, First Nations women are evacuated to The Pas, Thompson, or Winnipeg but most - including all women with high-risk pregnancies - go to Winnipeg.
To contribute scholarship that describes First Nations women's and community members' experiences and perspectives of Health Canada's evacuation policy in Manitoba.
Applying intersectional theory to data collected through 12 semi-structured interviews with seven women and five community members (four females, one male) in Manitoba who had experienced the evacuation policy. The data were analyzed thematically, which revealed three themes: resignation, resilience, and resistance.
The theme of resignation was epitomized by the quote, "Nobody has a choice." The ability to withstand and endure the evacuation policy despite poor or absent communication and loneliness informed of resilience. Resistance was demonstrated by women who questioned the necessity and requirement of evacuation for labour and birth. In one instance, resistance took the form of a planned homebirth with Aboriginal registered midwives.
There is a pressing need to improve the maternity care services that First Nations women receive when they are evacuated out of their communities, particularly when understood from the specific legal and constitutional position of First Nations women in Manitoba.
PubMed ID
29439924 View in PubMed
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Canada's evacuation policy for pregnant First Nations women: Resignation, resilience, and resistance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289757
Source
Women Birth. 2018 Feb 10; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-10-2018
Author
Karen M Lawford
Audrey R Giles
Ivy L Bourgeault
Author Affiliation
School of Indigenous and Canadian Studies, Carleton University, Dunton Tower 1221, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada. Electronic address: karen.lawford@carleton.ca.
Source
Women Birth. 2018 Feb 10; :
Date
Feb-10-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Aboriginal peoples in Canada are comprised of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit. Health care services for First Nations who live on rural and remote reserves are mostly provided by the Government of Canada through the federal department, Health Canada. One Health Canada policy, the evacuation policy, requires all First Nations women living on rural and remote reserves to leave their communities between 36 and 38 weeks gestational age and travel to urban centres to await labour and birth. Although there are a few First Nations communities in Canada that have re-established community birthing and Aboriginal midwifery is growing, most First Nations communities are still reliant on the evacuation policy for labour and birthing services. In one Canadian province, Manitoba, First Nations women are evacuated to The Pas, Thompson, or Winnipeg but most - including all women with high-risk pregnancies - go to Winnipeg.
To contribute scholarship that describes First Nations women's and community members' experiences and perspectives of Health Canada's evacuation policy in Manitoba.
Applying intersectional theory to data collected through 12 semi-structured interviews with seven women and five community members (four females, one male) in Manitoba who had experienced the evacuation policy. The data were analyzed thematically, which revealed three themes: resignation, resilience, and resistance.
The theme of resignation was epitomized by the quote, "Nobody has a choice." The ability to withstand and endure the evacuation policy despite poor or absent communication and loneliness informed of resilience. Resistance was demonstrated by women who questioned the necessity and requirement of evacuation for labour and birth. In one instance, resistance took the form of a planned homebirth with Aboriginal registered midwives.
There is a pressing need to improve the maternity care services that First Nations women receive when they are evacuated out of their communities, particularly when understood from the specific legal and constitutional position of First Nations women in Manitoba.
PubMed ID
29439924 View in PubMed
Less detail

Community-based risk messaging in Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300420
Source
Health Promot Int. 2019 Jun 07; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-07-2019
Author
Catherine T R Glass
Audrey R Giles
Author Affiliation
School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 334 Montpetit, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Health Promot Int. 2019 Jun 07; :
Date
Jun-07-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, yet they are predictable and avoidable events. Community-based approaches to injury prevention are those where researchers and/or injury prevention specialists work alongside the target population to identify injury prevention issues and then co-create strategies that are relevant to the population. Community-based strategies differ from other approaches as they strive to conduct research with, rather than on marginalized groups. A community-based approach to social marketing, injury prevention and risk messaging was applied in Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, to examine and address men's boating safety behaviours. Community participants identified the need for northern-based safety resources and a community-wide education campaign. As demonstrated through this example, community-based strategies should be considered for injury prevention, as the involvement of local community members may lead to more effective risk messaging that reflects the needs, culture, and experiences of the target group, while promoting healthy behaviours.
PubMed ID
31173068 View in PubMed
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Community-level factors that contribute to First Nations and Inuit older adults feeling supported to age well in a Canadian city.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298530
Source
J Aging Stud. 2019 Mar; 48:50-59
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Lauren A Brooks-Cleator
Audrey R Giles
Martha Flaherty
Author Affiliation
School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 420B Montpetit Hall, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address: Lbroo049@uottawa.ca.
Source
J Aging Stud. 2019 Mar; 48:50-59
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Despite the proliferation of age-friendly cities in Canada that are intended to support older adults to age well, there are still many inequalities between groups of older adults, particularly, and of concern for this paper, between Indigenous older adults, who experience colonialism's ongoing impacts, and non-Indigenous older adults. A better understanding of factors that inform these inequalities will help in the development of policies and programs that better support Indigenous older adults to age well and, thus, will contribute to ameliorating the inequalities that they face. Using a community-based participatory research approach, informed by a postcolonial theoretical lens, in this paper we addressed the question, "what community-level factors contribute to Indigenous older adults (aged 55 years and over) feeling supported to age well in the city of Ottawa?" We specifically examined this question in relation to the age-friendly communities framework, which guides the City of Ottawa's Older Adult Plan. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and photovoice with 32 First Nations and Inuit older adults revealed that the participants felt both supported and unsupported to age well. More specifically, there were two main areas in which they felt they could be better supported to age well: the social environment and physical environment. There were three subthemes within the social environment theme: responsive health and community support services, respect and recognition, and communication and information. Within the physical environment theme there were four subthemes: transportation, housing, accessibility, and gathering space. The results demonstrate that despite there being similarities in the areas that the participants felt they needed support and the areas on which the Older Adult Plan focuses, if the domains of aging well initiatives do not better account for the impacts of colonialism, it is unlikely that they will be effective in supporting Indigenous older adults' health and well-being.
PubMed ID
30832930 View in PubMed
Less detail

Community-level factors that contribute to First Nations and Inuit older adults feeling supported to age well in a Canadian city.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300274
Source
J Aging Stud. 2019 Mar; 48:50-59
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2019
Author
Lauren A Brooks-Cleator
Audrey R Giles
Martha Flaherty
Author Affiliation
School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 420B Montpetit Hall, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address: Lbroo049@uottawa.ca.
Source
J Aging Stud. 2019 Mar; 48:50-59
Date
Mar-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Cities
Female
Health Services for the Aged
Humans
Independent living
Interviews as Topic
Inuits
Male
Quebec
Social Environment
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Despite the proliferation of age-friendly cities in Canada that are intended to support older adults to age well, there are still many inequalities between groups of older adults, particularly, and of concern for this paper, between Indigenous older adults, who experience colonialism's ongoing impacts, and non-Indigenous older adults. A better understanding of factors that inform these inequalities will help in the development of policies and programs that better support Indigenous older adults to age well and, thus, will contribute to ameliorating the inequalities that they face. Using a community-based participatory research approach, informed by a postcolonial theoretical lens, in this paper we addressed the question, "what community-level factors contribute to Indigenous older adults (aged 55 years and over) feeling supported to age well in the city of Ottawa?" We specifically examined this question in relation to the age-friendly communities framework, which guides the City of Ottawa's Older Adult Plan. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and photovoice with 32 First Nations and Inuit older adults revealed that the participants felt both supported and unsupported to age well. More specifically, there were two main areas in which they felt they could be better supported to age well: the social environment and physical environment. There were three subthemes within the social environment theme: responsive health and community support services, respect and recognition, and communication and information. Within the physical environment theme there were four subthemes: transportation, housing, accessibility, and gathering space. The results demonstrate that despite there being similarities in the areas that the participants felt they needed support and the areas on which the Older Adult Plan focuses, if the domains of aging well initiatives do not better account for the impacts of colonialism, it is unlikely that they will be effective in supporting Indigenous older adults' health and well-being.
PubMed ID
30832930 View in PubMed
Less detail

Culturally Relevant Physical Activity through Elders in Motion: Physical Activity Programming for Older Aboriginal Adults in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276464
Source
J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2016 Sep 28;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-28-2016
Author
Lauren A Brooks-Cleator
Audrey R Giles
Source
J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2016 Sep 28;
Date
Sep-28-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The 2011 National Household Survey found that the number of Aboriginal peoples in Canada aged 65 and over has increased by over 46 % since the 2006 Canadian Census (Statistics Canada 2011). Despite this dramatic increase in older Aboriginal peoples, there is a dearth of research concerning this cohort, especially regarding their engagement with physical activity. Using a case study methodology, this research sought to examine if the Northwest Territories (NWT) Recreation and Parks Association's (NWTRPA) Elders in Motion (EIM) program is culturally relevant for the participants. For this research we used a postcolonial theoretical framework since many of the participants in EIM are Aboriginal older adults and have experienced, and continue to experience, the effects of colonialism. To address this aim we conducted nine semi-structured interviews with EIM program leaders and NWTRPA staff, and supplemented these with archival research of EIM program documents. The findings show that the NWTRPA has adapted many EIM program documents for the participants and thus attempts to be culturally relevant for the participants. There are, however, aspects of the program that are not culturally relevant and actually reinforce colonialism, specifically with the program content (i.e. activities that are a part of EIM). In light of these findings, recommendations are offered for the NWTRPA on how the EIM program can become more culturally relevant for its Aboriginal participants.
PubMed ID
27682893 View in PubMed
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A Foucaultian approach to menstrual practices in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176797
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2005;42(2):9-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Audrey R Giles
Source
Arctic Anthropol. 2005;42(2):9-21
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Exercise - physiology - psychology
Folklore
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Menstrual Cycle - ethnology - physiology - psychology
Menstruation - ethnology - physiology - psychology
Northwest Territories - ethnology
Population Groups - education - ethnology - history - psychology
Recreation - history - physiology - psychology
Research Design
Women - education - history - psychology
Women's Health - ethnology - history
Abstract
In this paper, I explore the benefits of using a Foucaultian approach to examine research questions related to Dene women, menstrual traditions, and physical practices (the term physical practices is here used to encompass the contested terms sport, recreation, traditional games, and physical activity) in the Dehcho region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. While it is clear that Indigenous research frameworks have been marginalized in past research projects, this paper argues that the current approach of using almost exclusively Indigenous frameworks when conducting research with Indigenous communities has several drawbacks and relies on some troubling assumptions. After outlining the strengths of a Foucaultian approach, examples derived from fieldwork in the Dehcho region are used to illustrate the ways in which a Foucaultian approach can be operationalized, while also demonstrating the ways in which such an approach to research can complement Indigenous research frameworks and agendas.
PubMed ID
21847835 View in PubMed
Less detail

Kivalliq Inuit Centre boarding home and the provision of prenatal education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279877
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):32213
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Karen M Lawford
Audrey R Giles
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):32213
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Kivalliq Inuit Centre (KIC), a boarding home in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is unique in its provision of a pilot prenatal education class and public health nursing services for Nunavummiut who are beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement. Through a critical review of literature, policies and interviews related to evacuation for birth, we argue that the pilot at the KIC has the potential to play an important role in improving maternal child health for residents of Nunavut.
PubMed ID
28156430 View in PubMed
Less detail

Kivalliq Inuit Centre boarding home and the provision of prenatal education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289504
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:32213
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
2016
Author
Karen M Lawford
Audrey R Giles
Author Affiliation
Institute of Feminist and Gender Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; klawf073@uottawa.ca.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:32213
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Female
Humans
Inuits
Manitoba
Maternal health services
Nunavut
Patient transfer
Pregnancy
Prenatal Education - methods
Residential Facilities
Abstract
The Kivalliq Inuit Centre (KIC), a boarding home in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is unique in its provision of a pilot prenatal education class and public health nursing services for Nunavummiut who are beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement. Through a critical review of literature, policies and interviews related to evacuation for birth, we argue that the pilot at the KIC has the potential to play an important role in improving maternal child health for residents of Nunavut.
Notes
Cites: Can Nurse. 2009 Jun;105(6):17-9 PMID 19583047
Cites: BMC Pediatr. 2012 Dec 12;12:190 PMID 23231747
PubMed ID
27938641 View in PubMed
Less detail

Kivalliq Inuit Centre boarding home and the provision of prenatal education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289662
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:32213
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
2016
Author
Karen M Lawford
Audrey R Giles
Author Affiliation
Institute of Feminist and Gender Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; klawf073@uottawa.ca.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:32213
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Female
Humans
Inuits
Manitoba
Maternal health services
Nunavut
Patient transfer
Pregnancy
Prenatal Education - methods
Residential Facilities
Abstract
The Kivalliq Inuit Centre (KIC), a boarding home in Winnipeg, Manitoba, is unique in its provision of a pilot prenatal education class and public health nursing services for Nunavummiut who are beneficiaries of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement. Through a critical review of literature, policies and interviews related to evacuation for birth, we argue that the pilot at the KIC has the potential to play an important role in improving maternal child health for residents of Nunavut.
Notes
Cites: Can Nurse. 2009 Jun;105(6):17-9 PMID 19583047
Cites: BMC Pediatr. 2012 Dec 12;12:190 PMID 23231747
PubMed ID
27938641 View in PubMed
Less detail

13 records – page 1 of 2.