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Detection of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Norway up to the northern limit of Ixodes ricinus distribution using a novel real time PCR test targeting the groEL gene.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302831
Source
BMC Microbiol. 2019 Aug 28; 19(1):199
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-28-2019
Author
Andrew Jenkins
Cecilie Raasok
Benedikte N Pedersen
Kristine Jensen
Åshild Andreassen
Arnulf Soleng
Kristin Skarsfjord Edgar
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Vivian Kjelland
Snorre Stuen
Dag Hvidsten
Bjørn-Erik Kristiansen
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Science and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway. andrew.jenkins@usn.no.
Source
BMC Microbiol. 2019 Aug 28; 19(1):199
Date
Aug-28-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is an emerging tick-borne pathogen. It is widely distributed in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe, but knowledge of its distribution in Norway, where I. ricinus reaches its northern limit, is limited. In this study we have developed a real time PCR test for Ca. N. mikurensis and used it to investigate the distribution of Ca. N. mikurensis in Norway.
Real time PCR targeting the groEL gene was developed and shown to be highly sensitive. It was used to detect Ca. N. mikurensis in 1651 I. ricinus nymphs and adults collected from twelve locations in Norway, from the eastern Oslo Fjord in the south to near the Arctic Circle in the north. The overall prevalence was 6.5% and varied locally between 0 and 16%. Prevalence in adults and nymphs was similar, suggesting that ticks acquire Ca. N. mikurensis predominantly during their first blood meal. In addition, 123 larvae were investigated; Ca. N. mikurensis was not found in larvae, suggesting that transovarial transmission is rare or absent. Sequence analysis suggests that a single variant dominates in Norway.
Ca. N. mikurensis is widespread and common in ticks in Norway and reaches up to their northern limit near the Arctic Circle. Ticks appear to acquire Ca. N. mikurensis during their first blood meal. No evidence for transovarial transmission was found.
Notes
ErratumIn: BMC Microbiol. 2020 Jan 10;20(1):9 PMID 31924162
PubMed ID
31462211 View in PubMed
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Detection of specific IgG antibodies in blood donors and tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks within a non-endemic area in southeast Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256868
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;46(3):181-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Astri Lervik Larsen
Anita Kanestrøm
Marthe Bjørland
Ashild Andreassen
Arnulf Soleng
Sirkka Vene
Susanne G Dudman
Author Affiliation
From the Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Østfold Hospital Trust , Fredrikstad , Norway.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar;46(3):181-4
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Blood Donors
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - immunology
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology - immunology
Endemic Diseases
Female
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Ixodes - virology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an emerging tick-borne disease in Europe. In Norway, the first TBE case occurred in 1997, and since then 1-14 cases have been detected annually along the southern coast. No TBE cases have yet been notified from the eastern coastal area. This study was conducted to assess the need for diagnostic tests and vaccine recommendation for this part of Norway.
Four hundred and sixty-one blood donors living in the county of Østfold were enrolled. After informed consent was obtained, the participants submitted a blood sample and filled out a questionnaire regarding tick bites, outdoor activities, and Flavivirus vaccines and diseases. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from the immediate vicinity and were examined in pools of 10 for TBE virus.
Eight human samples were TBE virus IgG-positive by ELISA and 5 of these samples were confirmed positive by neutralization test. Excluding the 2 samples from participants who had reported previous TBE vaccination, this shows a seroprevalence among blood donors of 0.65%. The existence of TBEV in the region was verified in nymphs of Ixodes ricinus by a prevalence of 0.14%.
The seroprevalence of TBE virus IgG and the TBE virus detected in ticks, indicate that TBE cases could occasionally occur in the area. The results should be made available to health care personnel to raise awareness for preventative measures.
PubMed ID
24447253 View in PubMed
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Distribution of Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks along the coast of Norway: The western seaboard is a low-prevalence region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308250
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 03; 67(2):130-137
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2020
Author
Benedikte N Pedersen
Andrew Jenkins
Katrine M Paulsen
Yohannes B Okbaldet
Kristin S Edgar
Alaka Lamsal
Arnulf Soleng
Åshild K Andreassen
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Science and Environmental Health, University of South-Eastern Norway, Bø, Norway.
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 03; 67(2):130-137
Date
03-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Anaplasmataceae - classification - isolation & purification
Animals
Ixodes - microbiology
Norway
Seasons
Abstract
Neoehrlichia mikurensis is a tick-borne pathogen widespread among ticks and rodents in Europe and Asia. A previous study on Ixodes ricinus ticks in Norway suggested that N. mikurensis was scarce or absent on the south-west coast of Norway, but abundant elsewhere. The aim of this study was to further investigate the prevalence and distribution of N. mikurensis along the western seaboard of Norway in comparison with more eastern and northern areas. The second aim of the study was to examine seasonal variation of the bacterium in one specific location in the south-eastern part of Norway. Questing I. ricinus were collected from 13 locations along the coast of Norway, from Brønnøysund in Nordland County to Spjaerøy in Østfold County. In total, 11,113 nymphs in 1,113 pools and 718 individual adult ticks were analysed for N. mikurensis by real-time PCR. The mean prevalence of N. mikurensis in adult ticks was 7.9% while the estimated pooled prevalence in nymphs was 3.5%. The prevalence ranged from 0% to 25.5%, with the highest prevalence in the southernmost and the northernmost locations. The pathogen was absent, or present only at low prevalence (
PubMed ID
31705635 View in PubMed
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Geographical distribution and prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and phylogeographic structure of the Ixodes ricinus vector in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306763
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 06; 67(4):370-381
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2020
Author
Rose Vikse
Katrine M Paulsen
Kristin Skarsfjord Edgar
John H-O Pettersson
Preben Skrede Ottesen
Yohannes Bein Okbaldet
Nosheen Kiran
Alaka Lamsal
Heidi Elisabeth H Lindstedt
Benedikte Nevjen Pedersen
Arnulf Soleng
Åshild K Andreassen
Author Affiliation
Division for Infection Control and Environmental Health, Department of Virology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 06; 67(4):370-381
Date
06-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animal Distribution
Animals
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - isolation & purification
Ixodes - genetics - virology
Norway
Phylogeography
Abstract
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a zoonotic flaviviral infection, is endemic in large parts of Norway and Eurasia. Humans are mainly infected with TBEV via bites from infected ticks. In Norway, the main geographical distribution of ticks is along the Norwegian coastline from southeast (~59°N) and up to the southern parts of Nordland County (~65°N). In this study, we collected ticks by flagging along the coast from Østfold County to Nordland County. By whole-genome sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of Ixodes ricinus, the phylogenetic tree suggests that there is limited phylogeographic structure both in Norway and in Europe. The overall TBEV prevalence is 0.3% for nymphs and 4.3% for adults. The highest estimated TBEV prevalence in adult ticks was detected in Rogaland and Vestfold County, while for nymphs it is highest in Vestfold, Vest-Agder and Rogaland. The present work is one of the largest studies on distribution and prevalence of TBEV in ticks in Scandinavia, showing that the virus is wider distributed in Norway than previously anticipated.
PubMed ID
32112526 View in PubMed
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Head lice in Norwegian households: actions taken, costs and knowledge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126408
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32686
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Tone Birkemoe
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. bjorn.arne.rukke@fhi.no
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32686
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Attitude to Health
Child
Child, Preschool
Health Care Costs
Humans
Lice Infestations - economics - epidemiology - therapy - transmission
Multivariate Analysis
Norway
Pediculus - physiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Abstract
Head lice infestations cause distress in many families. A well-founded strategy to reduce head lice prevalence must shorten the infectious period of individual hosts. To develop such a strategy, information about the actions taken (inspection, treatment and informing others about own infestations), level of knowledge and costs is needed. The present study is the first to consider all these elements combined.
A questionnaire was answered by 6203 households from five geographically separated municipalities in Norway.
94% of the households treated members with pediculicides when head lice were discovered. Nearly half of the households checked biannually or not at all. Previous occurrence of head lice and multiple children in a household improved both checking frequency and method. More than 90% of the households informed close contacts about their own pediculosis. Direct costs of pediculosis were low (less than €6.25 yearly) for 70% of the households, but the ability to pay for pediculicides decreased with the number of head lice infestations experienced. One in three households kept children from school because of pediculosis. Other widespread misconceptions, such as that excessive cleaning is necessary to fight head lice, may also add unnecessary burden to households. School affiliation had a significant effect on checking frequency and method, knowledge and willingness to inform others about own pediculosis.
Increased checking frequencies appear to be the most important element to reduce head lice prevalence in Norway and should be a primary focus of future strategies. National campaigns directed through schools to individual households, might be an important tool to achieve this goal. In addition to improving actions taken, such campaigns should also provide accurate information to reduce costs and enhance the level of knowledge about head lice in households.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22393437 View in PubMed
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Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277208
Source
Fam Pract. 2016 Feb;33(1):23-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Tone Birkemoe
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Arnulf Soleng
Øyvind Næss
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Source
Fam Pract. 2016 Feb;33(1):23-9
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Lice Infestations - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Multilevel Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pediculus
Peer Group
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Scalp Dermatoses - epidemiology
Schools
Siblings
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations.
Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area.
The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6-12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics.
Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less.
With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26511728 View in PubMed
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Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101449
Source
Parasitology. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-18-2011
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Tone Birkemoe
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Pest Control, Lovisenberggata 8, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0456 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Parasitology. 2011 Jul 18;:1-9
Date
Jul-18-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
SUMMARYHead lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.
PubMed ID
21767439 View in PubMed
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A large-scale screening for the taiga tick, Ixodes persulcatus, and the meadow tick, Dermacentor reticulatus, in southern Scandinavia, 2016.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302734
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2019 Jul 09; 12(1):338
Publication Type
Letter
Date
Jul-09-2019
Author
Lene Jung Kjær
Arnulf Soleng
Kristin Skarsfjord Edgar
Heidi Elisabeth H Lindstedt
Katrine Mørk Paulsen
Åshild Kristine Andreassen
Lars Korslund
Vivian Kjelland
Audun Slettan
Snorre Stuen
Petter Kjellander
Madeleine Christensson
Malin Teräväinen
Andreas Baum
Anastasia Isbrand
Laura Mark Jensen
Kirstine Klitgaard
René Bødker
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark. lenju@sund.ku.dk.
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2019 Jul 09; 12(1):338
Date
Jul-09-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Letter
Keywords
Animal Distribution
Animals
Arthropod Vectors - microbiology - parasitology
Babesiosis - prevention & control
Dermacentor - microbiology - parasitology - physiology
Dogs
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - prevention & control
Epidemiological Monitoring
Grassland
Ixodes - microbiology - parasitology - physiology
Norway - epidemiology
Nymph - virology
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Tick Infestations - epidemiology
Tick-Borne Diseases - prevention & control
Abstract
The taiga tick, Ixodes persulcatus, has previously been limited to eastern Europe and northern Asia, but recently its range has expanded to Finland and northern Sweden. The species is of medical importance, as it, along with a string of other pathogens, may carry the Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus. These subtypes appear to cause more severe disease, with higher fatality rates than the central European subtype. Until recently, the meadow tick, Dermacentor reticulatus, has been absent from Scandinavia, but has now been detected in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Dermacentor reticulatus carries, along with other pathogens, Babesia canis and Rickettsia raoultii. Babesia canis causes severe and often fatal canine babesiosis, and R. raoultii may cause disease in humans. We collected 600 tick nymphs from each of 50 randomly selected sites in Denmark, southern Norway and south-eastern Sweden in August-September 2016. We tested pools of 10 nymphs in a Fluidigm real time PCR chip to screen for I. persulcatus and D. reticulatus, as well as tick-borne pathogens. Of all the 30,000 nymphs tested, none were I. persulcatus or D. reticulatus. Our results suggest that I. persulcatus is still limited to the northern parts of Sweden, and have not expanded into southern parts of Scandinavia. According to literature reports and supported by our screening results, D. reticulatus may yet only be an occasional guest in Scandinavia without established populations.
PubMed ID
31288866 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267367
Source
APMIS. 2015 Sep;123(9):759-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Katrine M Paulsen
Benedikte N Pedersen
Arnulf Soleng
Yohannes B Okbaldet
John H-O Pettersson
Susanne G Dudman
Preben Ottesen
Inger Sofie Samdal Vik
Kirsti Vainio
Åshild Andreassen
Source
APMIS. 2015 Sep;123(9):759-64
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - isolation & purification
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - epidemiology
Humans
Islands
Ixodes - virology
Norway - epidemiology
Prevalence
Ticks - virology
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests.
PubMed ID
26126504 View in PubMed
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Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256796
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 May;113(5):1847-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Bjørn Arne Rukke
Arnulf Soleng
Heidi Heggen Lindstedt
Preben Ottesen
Tone Birkemoe
Author Affiliation
Department of Pest Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway, bjorn.arne.rukke@fhi.no.
Source
Parasitol Res. 2014 May;113(5):1847-61
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antiparasitic Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Lice Infestations - epidemiology - prevention & control
Logistic Models
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Norway - epidemiology
Pediculus
Questionnaires
Schools
Social Class
Students
Abstract
How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The biannual focus on head lice during the 2 years of investigation increased checking thoroughness, while checking frequency remained unchanged. Based on the results, we suggest new head lice management guidelines for health authorities.
PubMed ID
24609236 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.