The prospect of adequate comparisons is essential to decide on the effectiveness of different treatments. As there is a lack of unity in choice of questionnaires and included measures concerning musculoskeletal disorders, further investigations based on international recommendations are of interest. The intention of present study was to initiate the development of a clinically useful short-form questionnaire. The aim was to select items that capture prominent health aspects for women with neck-shoulder pain and thereby reduce the number of items to a clinically more convenient amount, and to determine the underlying structure of included items.
Data were collected in a randomised controlled trial including women with non-specific neck-shoulder pain >3 months (n = 117). Data collection included three core domains: pain intensity, physical and emotional functioning, and analysis was performed using Principal component analysis, and Varimax rotation.
The resulting 9-factor solution included interference, solicitous/distracting responses, mood and feelings about self and relations, pain intensity, punishing responses, personal growth, life control, sleep, and appetite (29 items).
The results will contribute to the development of a reduced battery of questions representing core dimensions. Such questionnaire would lighten the assessment load in the clinic as well as in research.
Among staff working in elderly care, a considerable proportion lack formal competence for their work. Lack of formal competence, in turn, has been linked to higher staff ratings of stress symptoms, sleep disturbances and workload.
1) To describe the strengths and weaknesses of an e-assessment and subsequent e-training program used among elderly care staff who lack formal competence and 2) to study the effects of an e-training program on staff members' working life (quality of care and psychological and structural empowerment) and well-being (job satisfaction and psychosomatic health). The hypothesis was that staff who had completed the e-assessment and the e-training program would rate greater improvements in working life and well-being than would staff who had only participated in the e-assessments.
An intervention study with a mixed-methods approach using quantitative (2010-2011) and qualitative data (2011) was conducted in Swedish elderly care. Participants included a total of 41 staff members. To describe the strengths and weaknesses of the e-assessment and the e-training program, qualitative data were gathered using semi-structured interviews together with a study-specific questionnaire. To study the effects of the intervention, quantitative data were collected using questionnaires on: job satisfaction, psychosomatic health, psychological empowerment, structural empowerment and quality of care in an intervention and a comparison group.
Staff who completed the e-assessments and the e-training program primarily experienced strengths associated with this approach. The results were also in line with our hypotheses: Staff who completed the e-assessment and the e-training program rated improvements in their working life and well-being.
Use of the e-assessments and e-training program employed in the present study could be one way to support elderly care staff who lack formal education by increasing their competence; increased competence, in turn, could improve their self-confidence, working life, and well-being.
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008 Aug;81(8):1029-3618175140
The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care.
Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education.
Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives.
The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members' practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point.
The aim of the present study was to provide information about factors related to long-duration pain (LDP) (>3 months), sick leave (SL) and long sick leave (LSL) (>3 months) among staff in the community health services. The specific research question was: To what extent do data on activity, physical function, pain severity, psychological/cognitive factors, expectations of LDP, expectations to be working within 6 months and work satisfaction predict LDP, SL and LSL respectively? Logistic regression analyses were used to test predicted membership in the groups LDP, SL and LSL. In this context prediction refers to statistical prediction only, due to the cross-sectional design. Staff (n = 914) in the public health services in a medium-sized Swedish city completed a questionnaire during the spring of 2000. The results show that musculoskeletal pain and SL for this occupational group are common. Pain severity, expectations of LDP and fear-avoidance increased the odds of being in the LDP group, while kinesiophobia decreased the odds. Pain severity and kinesiophobia increased the odds of being in the SL group, while expectations to be working in 6 months decreased the odds. Only expectations to be working in 6 months predicted membership in the LSL group, decreasing the odds. Although some caution is warranted concerning the representativity of the sample, the results indicate that expectations about pain duration and ability to work are important psychosocial factors in LDP and LSL.
Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, SE-80176, Gävle, Sweden. email@example.com.
Musculoskeletal pain is one of the leading causes of sick leave, especially among women, in Western countries. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively, among women on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back.
A cross-sectional study with a correlational design was conducted on women who were sick-listed due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back. A total of 208 participants responded to a survey comprising eight instruments: Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale, General Self-Efficacy scale, Sense of Coherence scale, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Ability Index and Life Satisfaction questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively.
Women who more strongly believed they would return to the same work had greater work ability (ß?=?0.39, p?
There is a lack of knowledge about how older people living with chronic illness describe the meaning of autonomy and participation, indicating a risk for reduced autonomy and participation in their everyday life. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of autonomy and participation among older people living with chronic illness in accordance with their lived experience. The design was descriptive with a phenomenological approach guided by Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Purposive sampling was used, and 16 older people living with chronic illness who lived in an ordinary home participated in individual interviews. The findings showed that the meaning of autonomy and participation among the older people emerged when it was challenged and evoked emotional considerations of the lived experience of having a chronic illness. It involved living a life apart, yet still being someone who is able, trustworthy and given responsibility--still being seen and acknowledged. The meaning of autonomy and participation was derived through life memories and used by the older people in everyday life for adjustment or adaption to the present life and the future. Our conclusion is that autonomy and participation were considered in relation to older people's life memories in the past, in their present situation and also their future wishes. Ability or disability is of less importance than the meaning of everyday life among older people. We suggest using fewer labels for limitations in everyday life when caring for older people and more use of the phrase 'ability to act' in different ways, based on older people's descriptions of the meaning of autonomy and participation.
Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle and Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Scand J Caring Sci; 2010 Relationships between coping, coping resources and quality of life in patients with chronic illness: a pilot study Background: In Sweden there are approximately about 3500 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 250 000 chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Objectives: The original purpose of the study was to determine differences between two groups of patients with chronic illness (ESRD and CHF) regarding the following study variables: coping, sense of coherence (SOC), self-efficacy and quality of life (QOL). Following this, the aim was to explore the relationships between demographic variables (sex, age, educational level and living area) and QOL as well as between coping, SOC, self-efficacy and QOL for the combined sample of patients with ESRD and CHF. Methods: A comparative and correlative design was used with a sample of 100 patients (n = 41 ESRD, n = 59 CHF). The data were collected during 2004, using four standardized questionnaires and regression analyses were conducted. Results: No significant differences were found between the two groups. Positive correlations were identified between SOC, general self-efficacy and QOL, whereas negative correlations emerge between emotion-focused coping, SOC, general self-efficacy and QOL. SOC, general self-efficacy and emotion-focused coping explained 40% of the variance in QOL. Those with low SOC and general self-efficacy showed negative correlations between emotion-focused coping and QOL, whereas no such correlations were shown for those with high values on SOC and general self-efficacy. Conclusions: The present results on coping and QOL correspond with previous research regarding how other groups with chronic illness handled their daily life. Preliminary results indicate that how individuals tackle their present situation is more important than which chronic illness they have. Women used more emotion-focused coping than men, which constitute an important finding for further research.
To describe the gardens and their use by individuals living at residential care facilities (RCFs) with high ratings on restorative values.
Being outdoors has been described as important to older people's well-being. Use of outdoor gardens may increase residents' well-being through experiences of restorative qualities such as being away and fascination. Thus far, there has been little research on restorative experiences of gardens in the care of older people.
A descriptive design using behaviour mapping observations integrated with qualitative field notes and recorded conversations.
A criterion sampling of two gardens (out of a total of 87) was made based on residents' ratings of restorative values; the two with the highest values were chosen. Eleven residents at the two RCFs took part. Data were collected through behaviour mapping observations, field notes and conversations on five occasions in the respective facilities during residents' visits to the garden.
The observations revealed that the main uses of the gardens were to socialise and relax. The conversations also showed that the garden stimulated residents' senses and evoked memories from the past. These restorative values were interpreted as a sense of being away and fascination. Not having opportunities for outdoor visits was reported to result in disappointment and reduced well-being.
The findings showed that two basic gardens with different characteristics and views could stimulate residents' senses and evoke memories from the past; this supports the call for residents to be able to spend time in gardens to promote their well-being.
First-line managers, nurses and healthcare staff in the care of older people should consider that regular opportunities to spend time outdoors may promote older people's well-being through feelings of being away and fascination.
Only a minority of patients with low-risk prostate cancer needs treatment, but the methods for optimal selection of patients for treatment are not established. This article describes the Study of Active Monitoring in Sweden (SAMS), which aims to improve those methods.
SAMS is a prospective, multicentre study of active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer. It consists of a randomized part comparing standard rebiopsy and follow-up with an extensive initial rebiopsy coupled with less intensive follow-up and no further scheduled biopsies (SAMS-FU), as well as an observational part (SAMS-ObsQoL). Quality of life is assessed with questionnaires and compared with patients receiving primary curative treatment. SAMS-FU is planned to randomize 500 patients and SAMS-ObsQoL to include at least 500 patients during 5 years. The primary endpoint is conversion to active treatment. The secondary endpoints include symptoms, distant metastases and mortality. All patients will be followed for 10-15 years.
Inclusion started in October 2011. In March 2013, 148 patients were included at 13 Swedish urological centres.
It is hoped that the results of SAMS will contribute to fewer patients with indolent, low-risk prostate cancer receiving unnecessary treatment and more patients on active surveillance who need treatment receiving it when the disease is still curable. The less intensive investigational follow-up in the SAMS-FU trial would reduce the healthcare resources allocated to this large group of patients if it replaced the present standard schedule.
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