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Adipose tissue density, a novel biomarker predicting mortality risk in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113601
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Jan;69(1):109-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Rachel A Murphy
Thomas C Register
Carol A Shively
J Jeffrey Carr
Yaorong Ge
Marta E Heilbrun
Steven R Cummings
Annemarie Koster
Michael C Nevitt
Suzanne Satterfield
Frances A Tylvasky
Elsa S Strotmeyer
Anne B Newman
Eleanor M Simonsick
Ann Scherzinger
Bret H Goodpaster
Lenore J Launer
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Gunnar Sigurdsson
Vilmundur Gudnason
Thomas F Lang
Stephen B Kritchevsky
Tamara B Harris
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Population Science, National Institute on Aging, 7201 Wisconsin Ave, 3C-309 Bethesda, MD 20814. rachel.murphy@nih.gov.
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Jan;69(1):109-17
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adiponectin - metabolism
Adipose Tissue - metabolism - radiography
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - physiology
Animals
Biological Markers - metabolism
Body mass index
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Leptin - metabolism
Macaca fascicularis
Male
Obesity - metabolism - mortality - radiography
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Survival Rate - trends
Abstract
Knowledge of adipose composition in relation to mortality may help delineate inconsistent relationships between obesity and mortality in old age. We evaluated relationships between abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) density, mortality, biomarkers, and characteristics.
VAT and SAT density were determined from computed tomography scans in persons aged 65 and older, Health ABC (n = 2,735) and AGES-Reykjavik (n = 5,131), and 24 nonhuman primates (NHPs). Associations between adipose density and mortality (4-13 years follow-up) were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. In NHPs, adipose density was related to serum markers and tissue characteristics.
Higher density adipose tissue was associated with mortality in both studies with adjustment for risk factors including adipose area, total fat, and body mass index. In women, hazard ratio and 95% CI for the densest quintile (Q5) versus least dense (Q1) for VAT density were 1.95 (1.36-2.80; Health ABC) and 1.88 (1.31-2.69; AGES-Reykjavik) and for SAT density, 1.76 (1.35-2.28; Health ABC) and 1.56 (1.15-2.11; AGES-Reykjavik). In men, VAT density was associated with mortality in Health ABC, 1.52 (1.12-2.08), whereas SAT density was associated with mortality in both Health ABC, 1.58 (1.21-2.07), and AGES-Reykjavik, 1.43 (1.07-1.91). Higher density adipose tissue was associated with smaller adipocytes in NHPs. There were no consistent associations with inflammation in any group. Higher density adipose tissue was associated with lower serum leptin in Health ABC and NHPs, lower leptin mRNA expression in NHPs, and higher serum adiponectin in Health ABC and NHPs.
VAT and SAT density provide a unique marker of mortality risk that does not appear to be inflammation related.
PubMed ID
23707956 View in PubMed
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Association between obesity history and hand grip strength in older adults--exploring the roles of inflammation and insulin resistance as mediating factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137143
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Mar;66(3):341-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Sari Stenholm
Janne Sallinen
Annemarie Koster
Taina Rantanen
Päivi Sainio
Markku Heliövaara
Seppo Koskinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Peltolantie 3, FI-20720 Turku, Finland. sari.stenholm@thl.fi
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Mar;66(3):341-8
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body Height
Body mass index
C-Reactive Protein
Female
Finland
Hand Strength
Humans
Inflammation - complications
Insulin Resistance
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle Strength - physiology
Obesity - complications
Risk factors
Abstract
To examine the association between obesity history and hand grip strength, and whether the association is partly explained by subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance.
Data are from 2,021 men and women aged 55 years and older participating in the representative population-based Health 2000 Survey in Finland. Body mass and body height, maximal hand grip strength, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance based on homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were measured in a health examination. Recalled weight at 20, 30, 40, and 50 years of age were recorded to obtain a hierarchical classification of obesity history. Obesity was defined as body mass index = 30 kg/m².
Earlier onset of obesity was associated with lower hand grip strength (p
Notes
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Comment In: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 May;69(5):618-924429339
Comment In: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 May;69(5):616-724300030
PubMed ID
21310808 View in PubMed
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Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266168
Source
Behav Brain Res. 2015 Sep 10;296:118-124
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-10-2015
Author
Nanna Yr Arnardottir
Annemarie Koster
Dane R Van Domelen
Robert J Brychta
Paolo Caserotti
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Johanna E Sverrisdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Erlingur Johannsson
Kong Y Chen
Vilmundur Gudnason
Tamara B Harris
Lenore J Launer
Thorarinn Sveinsson
Source
Behav Brain Res. 2015 Sep 10;296:118-124
Date
Sep-10-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n=352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline and 5-year change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to active and sedentary behavior (SB) measured at the end of the 5-year period by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days. More GM (ß=0.11; p=0.044) and WM (ß=0.11; p=0.030) at baseline was associated with more total physical activity (TPA). Also, when adjusting for baseline values, the 5-year change in GM (ß=0.14; p=0.0037) and WM (ß=0.11; p=0.030) was associated with TPA. The 5-year change in WM was associated with SB (ß=-0.11; p=0.0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions.
PubMed ID
26363425 View in PubMed
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Associations of visceral and liver fat with the metabolic syndrome across the spectrum of obesity: the AGES-Reykjavik study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138376
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jun;19(6):1265-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Lauren J Kim
Michael A Nalls
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Lenore J Launer
Annemarie Koster
Paulo H M Chaves
Birna Jonsdottir
Melissa Garcia
Vilmundur Gudnason
Tamara B Harris
Author Affiliation
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. KimLJ@mail.nih.gov
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Jun;19(6):1265-71
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fatty Liver - etiology - radiography
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Intra-Abdominal Fat - radiography
Liver - radiography
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - etiology
Obesity - physiopathology
Obesity, Abdominal - physiopathology
Overweight - physiopathology
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Characteristics
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Abstract
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a key pathogenic fat depot in the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but liver fat (LF) may also play an important role. We evaluated associations of VAT and LF with MetS in normal weight, overweight, and obese men and women (BMI
Notes
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PubMed ID
21183935 View in PubMed
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A blunted diurnal cortisol response in the lower educated does not explain educational differences in coronary heart disease: Findings from the AGES-Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257287
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Sep 28;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-28-2014
Author
Daniëlle A I Groffen
Hans Bosma
Annemarie Koster
Mikaela B von Bonsdorff
Thor Aspelund
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Brenda W J H Penninx
Gertrudis I J M Kempen
Clemens Kirschbaum
Vilmundur Gudnason
Tamara B Harris
Author Affiliation
CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Department of Social Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: D.Groffen@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Sep 28;
Date
Sep-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Lower educational attainment generally is a strong predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The underlying mechanisms of this effect are, however, less clear. One hypothesis is that stress related to limitations imposed by lower socioeconomic status elicits changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, which, in turn, increases risk of CHD. In a large cohort study, we examined whether educational attainment was related to risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD and the extent to which salivary cortisol mediated this relation independent of potential confounders, including lifestyles. Data came from 3723 participants aged 66 through 96 from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) - Reykjavik Study. Between 2002 and 2006, data were collected using questionnaires and examinations including morning and evening salivary samples. Hospital admission records and cause of death registries (ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes) were available until December 2009. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed. Even after adjustment for potential confounders, including lifestyle, persons with lower educational attainment showed a blunted cortisol response and also greater risk of incident CHD. However, our data did not support the role of cortisol as a mediator in the association between education and CHD in an older sample (192).
PubMed ID
25308232 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of Summer and Winter Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290965
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 10 21; 14(10):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
10-21-2017
Author
Nanna Yr Arnardottir
Nina Dora Oskarsdottir
Robert J Brychta
Annemarie Koster
Dane R van Domelen
Paolo Caserotti
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Johanna E Sverrisdottir
Erlingur Johannsson
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
Tamara B Harris
Kong Y Chen
Thorarinn Sveinsson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Education, University of Akureyri, Nordurslod 2, 600 Akureyri, Iceland. nanna@unak.is.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 10 21; 14(10):
Date
10-21-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Accelerometry
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Exercise
Female
Humans
Iceland
Independent Living - statistics & numerical data
Male
Seasons
Sedentary lifestyle
Abstract
In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours in 138 community-dwelling older adults (61.1% women, 80.3 ± 4.9 years) during summer and winter months. In general, SB occupied about 75% of the registered wear-time and was highly correlated with age (ß = 0.36). Although the differences were small, more time was spent during the summer in all PA categories, except for the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and SB was reduced. More lifestyle PA (LSPA) was accumulated in =5-min bouts during summer than winter, especially among highly active participants. This information could be important for policy makers and health professionals working with older adults. Accounting for seasonal difference is necessary in analyzing SB and PA data.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29065475 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of Summer and Winter Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286647
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Oct 21;14(10)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-21-2017
Author
Nanna Yr Arnardottir
Nina Dora Oskarsdottir
Robert J Brychta
Annemarie Koster
Dane R van Domelen
Paolo Caserotti
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Johanna E Sverrisdottir
Erlingur Johannsson
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
Tamara B Harris
Kong Y Chen
Thorarinn Sveinsson
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Oct 21;14(10)
Date
Oct-21-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours in 138 community-dwelling older adults (61.1% women, 80.3 ± 4.9 years) during summer and winter months. In general, SB occupied about 75% of the registered wear-time and was highly correlated with age (ß = 0.36). Although the differences were small, more time was spent during the summer in all PA categories, except for the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and SB was reduced. More lifestyle PA (LSPA) was accumulated in =5-min bouts during summer than winter, especially among highly active participants. This information could be important for policy makers and health professionals working with older adults. Accounting for seasonal difference is necessary in analyzing SB and PA data.
PubMed ID
29065475 View in PubMed
Less detail

Daily Physical Activity And Mortality Risk In The Very Old: Age, Gene/Environment-Reykjavik Study: 1993 Board #145 June 2, 3: 30 PM - 5: 00 PM.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273805
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5S Suppl 1):555
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016

Dynamic sitting: Measurement and associations with metabolic health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299067
Source
J Sports Sci. 2019 Mar 30; :1-9
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-30-2019
Author
Julianne D van der Berg
Coen D A Stehouwer
Hans Bosma
Paolo Caserotti
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Nanna Y Arnardottir
Dane R Van Domelen
Robert J Brychta
Kong Y Chen
Thorarinn Sveinsson
Erlingur Johannsson
Lenore J Launer
Vilmundur Gudnason
Palmi V Jonsson
Tamara B Harris
Annemarie Koster
Author Affiliation
a Department of Social Medicine/CAPHRI Care and Public Health Research Institute , Maastricht University , Maastricht , The Netherlands.
Source
J Sports Sci. 2019 Mar 30; :1-9
Date
Mar-30-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Dynamic sitting, such as fidgeting and desk work, might be associated with health, but remains difficult to identify out of accelerometry data. We examined, in a laboratory study, whether dynamic sitting can be identified out of triaxial activity counts. Among 18 participants (56% men, 27.3 ± 6.5 years), up to 236 counts per minute were recorded in the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes during dynamic sitting using a hip-worn accelerometer. Subsequently, we examined in 621 participants (38% men, 80.0 ± 4.7 years) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study whether dynamic sitting was associated with cardio-metabolic health. Compared to participants who recorded the fewest dynamic sitting minutes (Q1), those with more dynamic sitting minutes had a lower BMI (Q2 = -1.39 (95%CI = -2.33;-0.46); Q3 = -1.87 (-2.82;-0.92); Q4 = -3.38 (-4.32;-2.45)), a smaller waist circumference (Q2 = -2.95 (-5.44;-0.46); Q3 = -3.47 (-6.01;-0.93); Q4 = -8.21 (-10.72;-5.71)), and a lower odds for the metabolic syndrome (Q2 = 0.74 [0.45;1.20] Q3 = 0.58 [0.36;0.95]; Q4 = 0.36 [0.22;0.59]). Our findings suggest that dynamic sitting might be identified using accelerometry and that this behaviour was associated with health. This might be important given the large amounts of time people spend sitting. Future studies with a focus on validation, causation and physiological pathways are needed to further examine the possible relevance of dynamic sitting.
PubMed ID
30929574 View in PubMed
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Fat distribution and mortality: The AGES-Reykjavik study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261020
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Apr;23(4):893-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Annemarie Koster
Rachel A Murphy
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Thor Aspelund
Sigurdur Sigurdsson
Thomas F Lang
Vilmundur Gudnason
Lenore J Launer
Tamara B Harris
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Apr;23(4):893-7
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
This study examined associations of regional fat depots with all-cause mortality over 11 years of follow-up.
Data were from 2,187 men and 2,900 women, aged 66-96 years in the AGES-Reykjavik Study. Abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat and thigh intermuscular fat and subcutaneous fat were measured by CT.
In men, every standard deviation (SD) increment in thigh intermuscular fat was related to a significantly greater mortality risk (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08-1.26) after adjustment for age, education, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, BMI, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. In women, visceral fat (per SD increment) significantly increased mortality risk (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03-1.25) while abdominal subcutaneous fat (per SD increment) was associated with a lower mortality risk (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.61-0.80). Significant interactions with BMI were found in women, indicating that visceral fat was a strong predictor of mortality in obese women while abdominal and thigh subcutaneous fat were associated with a lower mortality risk in normal-weight and overweight women.
Fat distribution is associated with mortality over 11 years of follow-up independent of overall fatness. The divergent mortality risks for visceral fat and subcutaneous fat in women suggest complex relationships between overall fatness and mortality.
PubMed ID
25755182 View in PubMed
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