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A 15-year national follow-up: legislation is not enough to reduce the use of seclusion and restraint.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162773
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Sep;42(9):747-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Alice Keski-Valkama
Eila Sailas
Markku Eronen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Jouko Lönnqvist
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
Author Affiliation
Vanha Vaasa Hospital, PO Box 13, Vaasa, 65381 Finland. alice.keski-valkama@vvs.fi
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Sep;42(9):747-52
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Coercion
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Mental Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Middle Aged
Patient Discharge - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Registries
Restraint, Physical - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Abstract
Seclusion and restraint are frequent but controversial coercive measures used in psychiatric treatment. Legislative efforts have started to emerge to control the use of these measures in many countries. In the present study, the nationwide trends in the use of seclusion and restraint were investigated in Finland over a 15-year span which was characterised by legislative changes aiming to clarify and restrict the use of these measures.
The data were collected during a predetermined week in 1990, 1991, 1994, 1998 and 2004, using a structured postal survey of Finnish psychiatric hospitals. The numbers of inpatients during the study weeks were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register.
The total number of the secluded and restrained patients declined as did the number of all inpatients during the study weeks, but the risk of being secluded or restrained remained the same over time when compared to the first study year. The duration of the restraint incidents did not change, but the duration of seclusion increased. A regional variation was found in the use of coercive measures.
Legislative changes solely cannot reduce the use of seclusion and restraint or change the prevailing treatment cultures connected with these measures. The use of seclusion and restraint should be vigilantly monitored and ethical questions should be under continuous scrutiny.
PubMed ID
17598058 View in PubMed
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Age and gender differences in social anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) as a measure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161830
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2007 Dec 3;153(3):261-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-3-2007
Author
Klaus Ranta
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Martti T Tuomisto
Mirjami Pelkonen
Mauri Marttunen
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. klaus.ranta@tyks.fi
Source
Psychiatry Res. 2007 Dec 3;153(3):261-70
Date
Dec-3-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Psychology
Age Factors
Analysis of Variance
Child
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Models, Statistical
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Phobic Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Psychometrics
Reproducibility of Results
Sampling Studies
Sex Factors
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine age and gender differences in social anxiety symptoms during adolescence, and to investigate the psychometrics of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) among adolescents. The SPIN was administered to a large general population sample (n=5252) of Finnish adolescents aged 12-16 years. Age and gender trends in scores and internal consistency and factorial composition of the SPIN were examined in this sample. The test-retest reliability of the SPIN was examined in a smaller sample of adolescents (n=802). Results showed that girls scored higher than boys on the SPIN full scale and three subscales across the whole age range. Eighth graders (14- to 15-year-olds) scored higher than seventh and ninth graders on the full scale, for boys the differences were significant. Good test-retest reliability (r=0.81), and internal consistency (alpha=0.89) were found for the SPIN. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) performed on a random half (n=2625) of the population sample yielded a one-factor model accounting for 38% of the variance between items. This one-factor model, plus an alternative three-factor model, were examined in the holdout half of the population sample (n=2627) by means of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Some support was gained for both factor structures. Our results indicate that symptoms of social phobia may increase in mid-adolescence. The SPIN appears to be a reliable self-report instrument among adolescents.
PubMed ID
17707088 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia and life satisfaction in primary healthcare patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159882
Source
Psychosomatics. 2007 Nov-Dec;48(6):523-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Aino K Mattila
Outi Poutanen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Raimo K R Salokangas
Matti Joukamaa
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, FIN-33014, Tampere, Finland. aino.mattila@uta.fi
Source
Psychosomatics. 2007 Nov-Dec;48(6):523-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Affective Symptoms - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Patient Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Personal Satisfaction
Primary Health Care - utilization
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Risk factors
Self-Assessment
Sickness Impact Profile
Abstract
The relationship between life satisfaction and alexithymia was studied in a sample of 229 patients as a part of a naturalistic follow-up study of depression in Finnish primary health care. The measures were the abbreviated Life Satisfaction Scale and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Depression was assessed by telephone with the short form of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Of all subjects, 19.2% were alexithymic, and 9.2% were depressed. Alexithymia was negatively associated with life satisfaction even when depression and other confounding factors were controlled for. Alexithymia is a risk factor for life dissatisfaction in primary-care patients.
PubMed ID
18071100 View in PubMed
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Alexithymia and somatization in general population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156341
Source
Psychosom Med. 2008 Jul;70(6):716-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Aino K Mattila
Erkki Kronholm
Antti Jula
Jouko K Salminen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Riitta-Liisa Mielonen
Matti Joukamaa
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, FIN-33014 University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. aino.mattila@uta.fi
Source
Psychosom Med. 2008 Jul;70(6):716-22
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anxiety Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Sentinel Surveillance
Socioeconomic Factors
Somatoform Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Even though the association between alexithymia and somatization seems plausible according to several studies with selected populations, it has not been verified in carefully controlled and nationally representative population studies. We conducted such a study to find out whether alexithymia is associated with somatization at population level.
This study was a part of the Finnish Health 2000 Study. The nationally representative sample comprised 5129 subjects aged 30 to 97 years. Alexithymia was measured with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and somatic symptom reporting with the 12-item somatization scale derived from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Sociodemographic and health-related variables, including depressive and anxiety disorders, and physician verified somatic diagnoses, were treated as confounders in multivariate analyses.
Alexithymia was associated with somatization independently of somatic diseases, depression and anxiety and confounding sociodemographic variables. The TAS-20 factor scale "Difficulties Identifying Feelings" was the strongest common denominator between alexithymia and somatization.
This was the first time the independent association between alexithymia and somatization was established in a large, nationally representative nonclinical sample of both young and old adults with and without mental disorders and somatic diseases.
PubMed ID
18596251 View in PubMed
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Apolipoprotein E polymorphism is not a predictor for repeated coronary artery bypass surgery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173229
Source
Scand Cardiovasc J. 2005 Sep;39(4):220-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
Pekka Kuukasjärvi
Matti Tarkka
Ari Mennander
Erkki Ilveskoski
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Pekka Laippala
Jussi Mikkelsson
Pekka J Karhunen
Author Affiliation
Heart Center, Tampere University Hospital and Medical School, University of Tampere, Finland. pekka.kuukasjarvi@uta.fi
Source
Scand Cardiovasc J. 2005 Sep;39(4):220-4
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Apolipoproteins E - genetics
Biological Markers - blood
Case-Control Studies
Cholesterol - blood
Coronary Artery Bypass
Coronary Artery Disease - blood - genetics - surgery
Female
Finland
Gene Frequency - genetics
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - genetics - surgery
Male
Middle Aged
Polymorphism, Genetic - genetics
Predictive value of tests
Regression Analysis
Reoperation
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Factors leading to the occlusion of coronary grafts are diverse and may at least partially be inherited. We aimed to study the possible genetic predisposition and especially the role of apoE epsilon4 allele as a risk factor for repeated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a case-control setting.
All patients (n=184) who underwent repeated CABG between 1990 and 1998 were identified in the computed registry of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery in Tampere University Hospital. Age, sex and operation date matched controls with first time CABG were selected from the same registry. DNA samples were collected by sample stick sent via the mail for buccal smear. The final analysis included 137 surviving matched pairs.
In patients
PubMed ID
16118069 View in PubMed
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Applicability of the DEPS Depression Scale: assessing format and individual items in subgroups of patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144705
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2010 Dec;64(6):384-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Outi Poutanen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Raimo K R Salokangas
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, and Medical School, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland. outi.poutanen@uta.fi
Source
Nord J Psychiatry. 2010 Dec;64(6):384-90
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - psychology
Educational Status
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Personality Inventory - statistics & numerical data
Primary Health Care
Psychometrics - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Sex Factors
Abstract
The role of questionnaires is important in improving the recognition of major depression.
Our aims were: 1) to compare the differences of structure between the Depression Scale (DEPS) and other instruments, and 2) to study whether the DEPS items function in the same way with patients grouped by gender, by age or by education, at the same time taking into account the level of depression.
The item topics of the DEPS and five other self-rating questionnaires (BDI-II, CES-D, HADS-D, PHQ-9, SCL-90-D), an interviewer rating scale (HAMD-17) and two diagnostic interviews for depression (ICD-10, DSM-IV) were listed in a table. The format of the questionnaires and the rating scale were compared. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using empirical material (n=1522) and logistic regression models was done to predict DEPS item responses across dichotomous categories for gender, age and education.
The DEPS scale items covered essential symptoms of depression. Of the instruments assessed, the DEPS seemed the most simple. DIF analyses with the DEPS scale revealed some socio-demographic variation in which symptoms were endorsed after matching for DEPS sum score. Clinically the DEPS has good applicability and accuracy for screening depression in working aged primary care patients.
PubMed ID
20331409 View in PubMed
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Association of Income With the Incidence Rates of First Psychiatric Hospital Admissions in Finland, 1996-2014.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307635
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2020 03 01; 77(3):274-284
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-01-2020
Author
Kimmo Suokas
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Christian Hakulinen
Riittakerttu Kaltiala
Reijo Sund
Sonja Lumme
Olli Kampman
Sami Pirkola
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2020 03 01; 77(3):274-284
Date
03-01-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hospitalization - economics - statistics & numerical data
Hospitals, Psychiatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Mental Disorders - economics - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Registries
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The association between income and mental health has long been a question of interest. Nationwide register data provide means to examine trends and patterns of these associations.
To compare income-specific trends in the incidence rates of first psychiatric hospital admissions and to evaluate whether an income gradient exists in the incidence rates at all levels of household income.
This population-based open cohort study used linked registry data from nationwide Finnish Hospital Discharge and Statistics Finland population registers to determine annual incidence rates of first psychiatric hospital admissions. All Finnish citizens (N?=?6 258 033) living in the country at any time from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2014, contributed to 96 184 614 person-years at risk of first inpatient treatment for mental disorders. The analyses were conducted from August 1, 2018, through September 30, 2019.
Equivalized disposable income, sex, age group, reduction in income decile in the previous 3 years, urbanicity, educational level, and living alone status.
Annual percentage changes in the age-standardized incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs).
Altogether, 186 082 first psychiatric inpatient treatment episodes occurred (93 431 [50.2%] men), with overall age-standardized incidence rates per 1000 person-years varying from 1.59 (95% CI, 1.56-1.63) in 2014 to 2.11 (95% CI, 2.07-2.15) in 2008. In the highest income deciles, a continuous mean decrease per year of 3.71% (95% CI, 2.82%-4.59%) in men and 0.91% (95% CI, 0.01%-1.80%) in women occurred throughout the study period, in contrast to the lowest deciles, where the trends first increased (1.31% [95% CI, 0.62%-2.01%] increase in men from 1996 to 2007 and 5.61% [95% CI, 2.36%-8.96%] increase in women from 1996 to 2001). In the adult population, an income gradient was observed at all levels of household income: the lower the income decile, the higher the adjusted IRRs compared with the highest decile. The IRRs in the lowest decile varied from 2.94 (95% CI, 2.78-3.11) to 4.46 (95% CI, 4.17-4.76). In other age groups, the gradient did not persist at the highest income deciles. Diagnosis-specific income gradient was steepest in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, with estimated IRRs of the lowest income decile of 5.89 (95% CI, 5.77-6.02).
In this cohort study, clear negative income gradient in the incidence rates of first hospital-treated mental disorders was observed in the adult population of Finland. These findings suggest that reduction in the use of inpatient care has not taken place equally between different income groups.
Notes
CommentIn: JAMA Psychiatry. 2020 Mar 1;77(3):233-234 PMID 31851324
PubMed ID
31851325 View in PubMed
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Continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression and antisocial behaviour in middle adolescence: a 2-year prospective follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161938
Source
J Adolesc. 2008 Jun;31(3):355-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Minna Ritakallio
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Bettina von der Pahlen
Mirjami Pelkonen
Mauri Marttunen
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
Author Affiliation
University of Tampere, Tampere School of Public Health, Tampere, Finland. minna.ritakallio@uta.fi
Source
J Adolesc. 2008 Jun;31(3):355-70
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Family Relations
Female
Finland
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Personality Inventory
Prospective Studies
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both depression and antisocial behaviour had considerable continuity, and concurrent comorbidity between these disorders was strong. In contrast to several previous studies, antisocial behaviour did not predict subsequent depression, but conversely, depression predicted subsequent antisocial behaviour among girls. Among boys history of depression seemed to protect from subsequent antisocial behaviour. Gender differences in longitudinal associations are discussed.
PubMed ID
17692369 View in PubMed
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Cost-utility of routine cataract surgery.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167256
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;4:74
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Pirjo Räsänen
Kari Krootila
Harri Sintonen
Tiina Leivo
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Olli-Pekka Ryynänen
Marja Blom
Risto P Roine
Author Affiliation
Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital Group, Group Administration, P,O,Box 440, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland. pirjo.rasanen@stakes.fi
Source
Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2006;4:74
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cataract Extraction - economics - psychology - utilization
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Finland
Hospital Costs
Hospitals, Special - economics
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ophthalmology - economics
Outcome Assessment (Health Care) - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Questionnaires
Uncertainty
Visual acuity
Abstract
If decisions on health care spending are to be as rational and objective as possible, knowledge on cost-effectiveness of routine care is essential. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate the cost-utility of routine cataract surgery in a real-world setting.
Prospective assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients undergoing cataract surgery. 219 patients (mean (SD) age 71 (11) years) entering cataract surgery (in 87 only first eye operated, in 73 both eyes operated, in 59 first eye had been operated earlier) filled in the 15D HRQoL questionnaire before and six months after operation. Direct hospital costs were obtained from a clinical patient administration database and cost-utility analysis performed from the perspective of the secondary care provider extrapolating benefits of surgery to the remaining statistical life-expectancy of the patients.
Mean (SD) utility score (on a 0-1 scale) increased statistically insignificantly from 0.82 (0.13) to 0.83 (0.14). Of the 15 dimensions of the HRQoL instrument, only seeing improved significantly after operation. Mean utility score improved statistically significantly only in patients reporting significant or major preoperative seeing problems. Of the subgroups, only those whose both eyes were operated during follow-up showed a statistically significant (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
17010185 View in PubMed
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Depression and school performance in middle adolescent boys and girls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160730
Source
J Adolesc. 2008 Aug;31(4):485-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Sari A Fröjd
Eeva S Nissinen
Mirjami U I Pelkonen
Mauri J Marttunen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
Author Affiliation
Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Finland. sari.frojd@uta.fi
Source
J Adolesc. 2008 Aug;31(4):485-98
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Attention
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - psychology
Female
Finland
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Motivation
Personality Inventory
Reading
Self Concept
Sex Factors
Social Adjustment
Writing
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the associations between different levels of depression with different aspects of school performance. The target population included 2516 7th-9th grade pupils (13-17 years) of whom 90% completed the questionnaire anonymously in the classroom. Of the girls 18.4% and of the boys 11.1% were classified as being depressed (R-Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Finnish version of the 13-item BDI). The lower the self-reported grade point average (GPA) or the more the GPA had declined from the previous term, the more commonly the adolescents were depressed. Depression was associated with difficulties in concentration, social relationships, self-reliant school performance and reading and writing as well as perceiving schoolwork as highly loading. The school performance variables had similar associations with depression among both sexes when a wide range of depression was studied but gender differences appeared when studying the severe end of the depression scale. Our study indicates that pupils reporting difficulties in academic performance should be screened for depression.
PubMed ID
17949806 View in PubMed
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41 records – page 1 of 5.