Maternal smoking during pregnancy has repeatedly been associated with decreased sperm counts in sons. Nevertheless, our team recently detected a lower total sperm count in the sons of smoking fathers as compared to sons of non-smoking fathers. Since paternal and maternal tobacco smoking often coincide, it is difficult to discriminate whether effects are mediated paternally or maternally when using questionnaire- or register-based studies. Therefore, getting an objective measure of the maternal nicotine exposure level during pregnancy might help disentangling the impact of paternally and maternally derived exposure.
Our aim was to study how paternal smoking at the time of the pregnancy was associated with semen quality in the sons after adjusting for the maternal levels of nicotine exposure during pregnancy.
We recruited 104 men (17-20 years old) from the general Swedish population. The participants answered a questionnaire about paternal smoking. Associations between smoking and semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility were adjusted for levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine in stored maternal serum samples obtained from rubella screening between the 6th and 35th week of pregnancy. We additionally adjusted for the estimated socioeconomic status.
After adjusting for the maternal cotinine, the men of smoking fathers had 41% lower sperm concentration and 51% lower total sperm count than the men of non-smoking fathers (p = 0.02 and 0.003, respectively). This was robust to the additional adjustment.
Our results suggest a negative association between paternal smoking and sperm counts in the sons, independent of the level maternal nicotine exposure during the pregnancy.
Self-reported data on smoking during pregnancy from the Medical Birth Register of Sweden (MBR) are widely used. However, underreporting of such behavior may occur, leading to biases. It is of importance to validate the smoking data in the MBR. The main objective was to investigate the agreement between self-reported smoking data from the MBR and cotinine levels in maternal serum among women from the general population in the region of Skåne, Sweden. We also estimated the transfer of cotinine from mother to fetus.
From a cohort used previously to investigate the relationship between intrauterine environmental exposures and offspring neuropsychiatric outcomes, there were 204 control children retrieved from the MBR with data on maternal smoking in early pregnancy registered. Data on maternal and umbilical cord cotinine at delivery were available for these children from a regional biobank.
There was a high agreement between cotinine levels and MBR smoking data (? = 0.82) and a high correlation between cotinine levels in maternal and umbilical cord serum (r s = 0.90, P
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may cause type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas there is no fully convincing epidemiological evidence for such an association. In Sweden the most important source of POP exposure is fatty fish. We have assessed the association between serum levels of POPs and prevalence of diabetes in Swedish fishermen and their wives, with high consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. METHODS: In 196 men (median age 60 years) and 184 women (median age 64 years), we analyzed 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) in serum using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The participants were asked if they had diabetes and, if so, since which year and about medication and diet. The Odds Ratios (OR) for diabetes with respect to continuous exposure variables were analyzed with logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Moreover trends of diabetes prevalence with respect to trichotomized exposure variables were tested with Jonckheere-Terpstra's test. RESULTS: Six percent of the men and 5% of the women had diabetes. After confounder adjustment CB-153 was significantly associated with diabetes prevalence using both categorized and continuous exposure data (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an OR of 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.32, p = 0.03). Similar associations were observed for p,p'-DDE (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an OR of 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.09, p = 0.006). Gender stratified analyses showed among men consistent positive associations with CB-153, but a more ambiguous pattern with respect to DDE. In contrast, among the women the associations with p,p'-DDE were stronger than with CB-153. CONCLUSION: The study provides support that POP exposure might contribute to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the major metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), are stable lipophilic compounds widely found in the environment and in the general population. They can enter the food chain, and their negative impact on male reproduction is currently under active scrutiny. To explore the hypothesis that environmental exposure to these compounds is associated with altered sperm chromatin structure integrity in human sperm, we conducted a study of 176 Swedish fishermen (with low and high consumption of fatty fish, a very important exposure source of POPs). We determined serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and p,p'-DDE, and we used the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) to assess sperm DNA/chromatin integrity. When CB-153 serum levels (individual dose range, 39-1,460 ng/g lipid) were categorized into equally sized quintiles, we found an association with the DNA fragmentation index (%DFI). A significantly lower %DFI was found in the lowest CB-153 quintile (
Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its major metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p' -DDE) have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in recent epidemiological studies. We have analysed 2,2',4,4',5,5' -hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and p,p'-DDE in 544 serum-samples from Swedish women with a median age of 50 years. The participants were asked if they had diabetes and if so, what type of diabetes, years since diagnosis and what kind of treatment they had. Associations between exposure and T2DM were analysed by logistic regression. Moreover, trends of T2DM prevalence were tested with Jonckheere-Terpstrá test. Sixteen of the 544 women (3%) had diabetes, of which 15 were classified as T2DM. There was a significant association with T2DM for both CB-153 (an increase of 100 ng/g lipid corresponded to an odds ratio [OR] of 1. 6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1. 0, 2. 7) and p,p9-DDE (OR 1. 3, 95%CI 1. 1, 1. 6). In addition, significant positive trends between quartiles of CB-153 and T2DM (P 5 0. 004) and p,p9-DDE and T2DM (P 5 0. 002) were observed. The study shows an association between POP serum concentrations and an increased prevalence of T2DM.
BACKGROUND: During the last decades, there has been concern that exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), may contribute to sex ratio changes in offspring of exposed populations. METHODS: To investigate whether exposure to 2,2'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) affect Y:X chromosome proportion, semen of 149 Swedish fishermen, aged 27-67 years, was investigated. The men provided semen and blood for analysis of hormone, CB-153 and p,p'-DDE levels. The proportion of Y- and X-chromosome bearing sperm in semen samples was determined by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. RESULTS: Log transformed CB-153 as well as log transformed p,p'-DDE variables were both significantly positively associated with Y chromosome fractions (P-values = 0.05 and
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate factors within nine identified areas that influence why some older workers want to (or believe they can) work until age 65 years or beyond, whereas others leave the workforce earlier. METHODS: The questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study included 1792 respondents aged 55-64 years, employed in the healthcare sector in Sweden. Using logistic regression, we investigated the associations between statements within nine areas and two outcome measures: (i) Whether the individual wanted to work until age 65 years or beyond and (ii) whether the individual believed they can work until age 65 years or beyond. RESULTS: Of the 1792 respondents, 54% stated that they "can" and 38% that they "want to" work until age 65 years or beyond. Three areas were significantly associated with both these outcomes: worker health, economic incentives, and retirement decisions by life partners or close friends. Mental and physical working environment, work pace and skills/competence were associated with the "can" outcome, whereas work as an important part of life, working time, and management attitude to older workers were associated with the "want to" outcome. CONCLUSION: Although there were differences regarding the associations between six of the areas and the two outcomes (ie, "can" and "want to" go on working until age 65 years or beyond), three of the areas were important to both outcomes. Among those, it was interesting that life partner or close social environment gave higher odds ratios than for example health, physical work environment or work satisfaction.
BACKGROUND: Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may interfere with reproductive function but direct evidence in humans is very limited. METHODS: Fertility was examined in four regions with contrasting blood levels of POPs. Pregnant women and their partners in Warsaw (Poland), Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Greenland were consecutively enrolled during antenatal visits. Swedish fishermen and their spouses were recruited separately and independently of current pregnancy. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE) were available for both partners. Time to pregnancy interviews were obtained among 2269 women and 798 men provided a semen sample. RESULTS: Inuits had high levels of both POP markers, Swedish fishermen were high in CB-153 but low in DDE, men from Kharkiv were high in DDE and low in CB-153 while men from Warsaw were low in CB-153 and had intermediate DDE levels. Compared to Warsaw couples, fecundability was reduced among couples from Kharkiv [adjusted fecundability ratio (FR) 0.64 (95% CI 0.5-0.8)] and elevated in Swedish fishermen families [FR 1.26 (95% CI 1.0-1.6)]. Adjusted geometric means of sperm counts and morphology did not differ between regions while sperm motility was higher in men living in Warsaw. CONCLUSION: We observed regional differences in time to pregnancy and sperm motility that may be related to regional differences in POP blood levels, but other interpretations are also plausible. In particular, differences in access to safe contraception and in the prevalence of contraceptive failures are most likely to bias comparisons of time to pregnancy.
Air pollution has been suggested to affect fetal growth, but more data is needed to assess the timing of exposure effects by using ultrasound measures. It is also important to study effects in low exposure areas to assess eventual thresholds of effects. The MAPSS (Maternal Air Pollution in Southern Sweden) cohort consists of linked registry data for around 48,000 pregnancies from an ultrasound database, birth registry and exposure data based on residential addresses. Measures of air pollution exposure were obtained through dispersion modelling with input data from an emissions database (NOx) with high resolution (100-500m grids). Air pollution effects were assessed with linear regressions for the following endpoints; biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal diameter and estimated fetal weight measured in late pregnancy and birth weight and head circumference measured at birth. We estimated negative effects for NOx; in the adjusted analyses the decrease of abdominal diameter and femur length were -0.10 (-0.17, -0.03) and -0.13 (-0.17, -0.01)mm, respectively, per 10µg/m(3) increment of NOx. We also estimated an effect of NOx-exposures on birth weight by reducing birth weight by 9g per 10µg/m(3) increment of NOx. We estimated small but statistically significant effects of air pollution on late fetal and birth size and reduced fetal growth late in pregnancy in a geographic area with levels below current WHO air quality guidelines.
Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications.
We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia.
High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999-2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders.
The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5-8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only.
NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines.
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