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Community-based adaptation research in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276482
Source
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change. 2016 Mar-Apr;7(2):175-191
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
  1 document  
Author
James D Ford
Ellie Stephenson
Ashlee Cunsolo Willox
Victoria Edge
Khosrow Farahbakhsh
Christopher Furgal
Sherilee Harper
Susan Chatwood
Ian Mauro
Tristan Pearce
Stephanie Austin
Anna Bunce
Alejandra Bussalleu
Jahir Diaz
Kaitlyn Finner
Allan Gordon
Catherine Huet
Knut Kitching
Marie-Pierre Lardeau
Graham McDowell
Ellen McDonald
Lesya Nakoneczny
Mya Sherman
Source
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change. 2016 Mar-Apr;7(2):175-191
Date
2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
191611
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Adaptation
Communities
Traditional knowledge
Abstract
Community-based adaptation (CBA) has emerged over the last decade as an approach to empowering communities to plan for and cope with the impacts of climate change. While such approaches have been widely advocated, few have critically examined the tensions and challenges that CBA brings. Responding to this gap, this article critically examines the use of CBA approaches with Inuit communities in Canada. We suggest that CBA holds significant promise to make adaptation research more democratic and responsive to local needs, providing a basis for developing locally appropriate adaptations based on local/indigenous and Western knowledge. Yet, we argue that CBA is not a panacea, and its common portrayal as such obscures its limitations, nuances, and challenges. Indeed, if uncritically adopted, CBA can potentially lead to maladaptation, may be inappropriate in some instances, can legitimize outside intervention and control, and may further marginalize communities. We identify responsibilities for researchers engaging in CBA work to manage these challenges, emphasizing the centrality of how knowledge is generated, the need for project flexibility and openness to change, and the importance of ensuring partnerships between researchers and communities are transparent. Researchers also need to be realistic about what CBA can achieve, and should not assume that research has a positive role to play in community adaptation just because it utilizes participatory approaches. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:175-191. doi: 10.1002/wcc.376 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
PubMed ID
27668014 View in PubMed
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Prevalence and genetic characterization of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301905
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 Nov; 66(7):813-825
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2019
Author
Danielle A Julien
Jan M Sargeant
Rebecca A Guy
Karen Shapiro
Rachel K Imai
Anna Bunce
Enooyaq Sudlovenick
Shu Chen
Jiping Li
Sherilee L Harper
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2019 Nov; 66(7):813-825
Date
Nov-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
There are few epidemiologic studies on the role of dogs in zoonotic parasitic transmission in the Circumpolar North. The objectives of this study were to: (a) estimate the faecal prevalence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs; (b) investigate potential associations between the type of dog population and the faecal presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.; and (c) describe the molecular characteristics of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in Iqaluit, Nunavut. We conducted two cross-sectional studies in July and September 2016. In July, the team collected daily faecal samples for 3 days from each of 20 sled dogs. In September, the team collected three faecal samples from each of 59 sled dogs, 111 samples from shelter dogs and 104 from community dogs. We analysed faecal samples for the presence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using rapid immunoassay and flotation techniques. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of target genes were performed on positive faecal samples. Overall, the faecal prevalence of at least one of the target parasites, when one faecal sample was chosen at random for all dogs, was 8.16% (CI: 5.52-11.92), and for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., prevalence was 4.42% (CI: 2.58-7.49) and 6.12% (CI: 3.88-9.53), respectively. The odds of faecal Giardia spp. in sled dogs were significantly higher than those in shelter and community dogs (OR 10.19 [CI: 1.16-89.35]). Sequence analysis revealed that 6 faecal samples were Giardia intestinalis, zoonotic assemblage B (n = 2) and species-specific assemblages D (n = 3) and E (n = 1), and five faecal samples were Cryptosporidium canis. Giardia intestinalis is zoonotic; however, Cryptosporidium canis is rare in humans and, when present, usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. Dogs may be a potential source of zoonotic Giardia intestinalis assemblage B infections in residents in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada; however, the direction of transmission is unclear.
PubMed ID
31305029 View in PubMed
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Weather, environmental conditions, and waterborne Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298171
Source
J Water Health. 2019 Feb; 17(1):84-97
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2019
Author
Stephanie Masina
Jamal Shirley
Jean Allen
Jan M Sargeant
Rebecca A Guy
Peter M Wallis
J Scott Weese
Ashlee Cunsolo
Anna Bunce
Sherilee L Harper
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, CanadaN1G 2W1 E-mail: s.masina23@gmail.com.
Source
J Water Health. 2019 Feb; 17(1):84-97
Date
Feb-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Indigenous communities in the Arctic often face unique drinking water quality challenges related to inadequate infrastructure and environmental contamination; however, limited research exists on waterborne parasites in these communities. This study examined Giardia and Cryptosporidium in untreated surface water used for drinking in Iqaluit, Canada. Water samples (n = 55) were collected weekly from June to September 2016 and tested for the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Exact logistic regressions were used to examine associations between parasite presence and environmental exposure variables. Using microscopy, 20.0% of samples tested positive for Giardia (n = 11) and 1.8% of samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium (n = 1). Low water temperatures (1.1 to 6.7 °C) and low air temperatures (-0.1 to 4.5 °C) were significantly associated with an increased odds of parasite presence (p = 0.047, p = 0.041, respectively). These results suggest that surface water contamination with Giardia and Cryptosporidium may be lower in Iqaluit than in other Canadian regions; however, further research should examine the molecular characterization of waterborne parasites to evaluate the potential human health implications in Northern Canada.
PubMed ID
30758306 View in PubMed
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Weather, environmental conditions, and waterborne Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Iqaluit, Nunavut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300140
Source
J Water Health. 2019 Feb; 17(1):84-97
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2019
Author
Stephanie Masina
Jamal Shirley
Jean Allen
Jan M Sargeant
Rebecca A Guy
Peter M Wallis
J Scott Weese
Ashlee Cunsolo
Anna Bunce
Sherilee L Harper
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario, CanadaN1G 2W1 E-mail: s.masina23@gmail.com.
Source
J Water Health. 2019 Feb; 17(1):84-97
Date
Feb-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Canada
Cryptosporidium
Environmental monitoring
Fresh Water - microbiology - parasitology
Giardia
Humans
Nunavut
Weather
Abstract
Indigenous communities in the Arctic often face unique drinking water quality challenges related to inadequate infrastructure and environmental contamination; however, limited research exists on waterborne parasites in these communities. This study examined Giardia and Cryptosporidium in untreated surface water used for drinking in Iqaluit, Canada. Water samples (n = 55) were collected weekly from June to September 2016 and tested for the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Exact logistic regressions were used to examine associations between parasite presence and environmental exposure variables. Using microscopy, 20.0% of samples tested positive for Giardia (n = 11) and 1.8% of samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium (n = 1). Low water temperatures (1.1 to 6.7 °C) and low air temperatures (-0.1 to 4.5 °C) were significantly associated with an increased odds of parasite presence (p = 0.047, p = 0.041, respectively). These results suggest that surface water contamination with Giardia and Cryptosporidium may be lower in Iqaluit than in other Canadian regions; however, further research should examine the molecular characterization of waterborne parasites to evaluate the potential human health implications in Northern Canada.
PubMed ID
30758306 View in PubMed
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