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Activation of flavonoid biosynthesis by solar radiation in bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L) leaves.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9570
Source
Planta. 2004 Mar;218(5):721-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Laura Jaakola
Kaisu Määttä-Riihinen
Sirpa Kärenlampi
Anja Hohtola
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology/Botany, University of Oulu, POB 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland. laura.jaakola@oulu.fi
Source
Planta. 2004 Mar;218(5):721-8
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology - radiation effects
Acyltransferases - genetics - metabolism
Alcohol Oxidoreductases - genetics - metabolism
Flavonoids - biosynthesis - radiation effects
Fruit - metabolism - radiation effects
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic - radiation effects
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant - radiation effects
Mixed Function Oxygenases - genetics - metabolism
Oxygenases - genetics - metabolism
Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase - genetics - metabolism
Plant Leaves - metabolism - radiation effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sunlight
Vaccinium myrtillus - genetics - metabolism - radiation effects
Abstract
The effect of solar radiation on flavonoid biosynthesis was studied in bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L.) leaves. Expression of flavonoid pathway genes of bilberry was studied in the upper leaves of bilberry, exposed to direct sunlight, in the shaded leaves growing lower in the same plants and in fruits. Bilberry-specific digoxigenin-dUTP-labeled cDNA fragments of five genes from the general phenylpropanoid pathway coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and from the flavonoid pathway coding chalcone synthase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase were used as probes in gene expression analysis. Anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids from the leaves and fruits were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a diode array detector. An increase in the expression of the studied flavonoid pathway genes was observed in leaves growing under direct sun exposure. Also, the concentrations of anthocyanins, catechins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids were higher in the leaves exposed to direct sunlight. However, the concentration of polymeric procyanidins was lower in sun-exposed leaves, whereas that of prodelphinidins was slightly increased. The results give further support for the protective role of flavonoids and hydroxy cinnamic acids against high solar radiation in plants. Also, the roles of different flavonoid compounds as a defense against stress caused by sun exposure is discussed.
PubMed ID
14666422 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101617
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;698:99-109
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Anja Hohtola
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Oulu, Finland, anja.hohtola@oulu.fi.
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;698:99-109
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been claimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised.Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin).Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces various secondary metabolites. The most abundant, among these compounds, are the naphthoquinones. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is a characteristic field layer species in boreal forests. Bilberry and other northern Vaccinium species, berries and leaves, contain high amounts of phenolic compounds. Bilberries are known for its exceptionally high amounts of anthocyanins with powerful antioxidant capacity. They have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, like having a protective role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many flavonoids also seem to have antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiallergenic properties. The effect of ingested cranberry (V. oxycoccus) juice has been shown to prevent urinary tract infections in women.
PubMed ID
21706429 View in PubMed
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Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization techniques in the analysis of the main constituents from Rhodiola rosea extracts by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9656
Source
J Mass Spectrom. 2003 Aug;38(8):845-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
Ari Tolonen
Anja Hohtola
Jorma Jalonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ari.tolonen@oulu.fi
Source
J Mass Spectrom. 2003 Aug;38(8):845-53
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atmospheric Pressure
Calibration
Chromatography, Liquid - instrumentation - methods
Comparative Study
Glucosides - analysis
Medicine, Chinese Traditional
Phenols - analysis
Propanols - analysis
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rhodiola - chemistry
Sensitivity and specificity
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization - instrumentation - methods
Abstract
Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with mass spectrometric (MS) detection based on selected ion monitoring (SIM) was developed for determining salidroside, sachaliside 1, rosin, 4-methoxycinnamyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside, rosarin, rosavin, cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside, rosiridin and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside from the callus and plant extracts in one chromatographic run. Good linearity over the range 0.5-500 ng ml(-1) for salidroside, 2-2000 ng ml(-1) for rosavin and 2-500 ng ml(-1) for benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside was observed. The intra-assay accuracy and precision within quantitation ranges varied between -10.0 and +13.2% and between 0.7 and 9.0%, respectively. Optimization of the ionization process was performed with electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization techniques using four different additive compositions for eluents in the LC/MS scan mode, using both positive and negative ion modes. The best ionization sensitivity for the compounds studied was obtained with electrospray ionization when using pure water without any additives as the aqueous phase.
PubMed ID
12938105 View in PubMed
Less detail

Determination of naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols from Hypericum perforatum extracts by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46037
Source
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16(5):396-402
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Ari Tolonen
Jouko Uusitalo
Anja Hohtola
Jorma Jalonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ari.tolonen@oulu.fi
Source
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16(5):396-402
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthraquinones - analysis
Calibration
Cells, Cultured
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Hypericum - chemistry
Indicators and Reagents
Phloroglucinol - analysis
Plant Extracts - analysis
Quality Control
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Spectrum Analysis, Mass
Abstract
Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) has long been known as a medicinal plant, and has been used for the treatment of depression and neuralgic disorders. Its main active constituents are believed to be a naphthodianthrone, hypericin, and a phloroglucinol, hyperforin. A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray tandem mass spectrometric method for fast simultaneous determination of six major naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols of Hypericum perforatum extract has been developed. The method, based on multiple dissociation reaction monitoring (MRM), allows the analysis of hypericin, protohypericin, pseudohypericin, protopseudo-hypericin, hyperforin and adhyperforin from the extract in less than 5 min. Good linearity over the range 0.1-1000 ng/mL for hyperforin and 2-500 ng/mL for hypericin was observed. Intra-assay accuracy and precision varied from 2 to 19% within these ranges. Lower levels of quantitation for hyperforin were 0.5 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL for hypericin.
PubMed ID
11857723 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does extraction of DNA and RNA by magnetic fishing work for diverse plant species?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69032
Source
Mol Biotechnol. 2004 Jul;27(3):209-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
Jaana Vuosku
Laura Jaakola
Soile Jokipii
Katja Karppinen
Terttu Kämäräinen
Veli-Pekka Pelkonen
Anne Jokela
Tytti Sarjala
Anja Hohtola
Hely Häggman
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland. jaana.vuosku@oulu.fi
Source
Mol Biotechnol. 2004 Jul;27(3):209-15
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chemical Fractionation - methods
Comparative Study
DNA, Plant - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
Magnetics
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
RNA, Plant - chemistry - genetics - isolation & purification
Reagent kits, diagnostic
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Species Specificity
Abstract
An automated nucleic acid extraction procedure with magnetic particles originally designed for isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) from animal tissues was tested for plant material. We isolated genomic DNA and total RNA from taxonomically diverse plant species representing conifers (Scots pine), broad-leaved trees (silver birch and hybrid aspen), dwarf shrubs (bilberry), and both monocotyledonous (regal lily) and dicotyledonous (Saint John's wort, round-leaved sundew, and tobacco) herbaceous plants. Buffers developed for DNA extraction were successfully used in addition to manufacturer's extraction kits. The quality of RNA was appropriate for many applications, but the quality of DNA was not always sufficient for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. However, we could strikingly improve the quality by eliminating the adherent compounds during the extraction or later in the PCR phase. Our results show that the use of the procedure could be extended to diverse plant species. This procedure is especially suitable for small sample sizes and for simultaneous processing of many samples enabling large-scale plant applications in population genetics, or in the screening of putative transgenic plants.
PubMed ID
15247494 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fast high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols from Hypericum perforatum extracts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45883
Source
Phytochem Anal. 2003 Sep-Oct;14(5):306-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ari Tolonen
Anja Hohtola
Jorma Jalonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ari.tolonen@oulu.fi
Source
Phytochem Anal. 2003 Sep-Oct;14(5):306-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bicyclo Compounds
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid - methods
Hypericum - chemistry
Molecular Structure
Naphthoquinones - analysis
Perylene - analogs & derivatives - analysis
Phloroglucinol - analysis
Plant Extracts - chemistry
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Spectrum Analysis
Terpenes - analysis
Abstract
Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) has been used in modern medicine for treatments of depression and neuralgic disorders. An HPLC method with photodiode array detection for the rapid determination of the major active compounds, naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols, has been developed. The method permits the determination of hypericin, protohypericin, pseudohypericin, protopseudohypericin, hyperforin and adhyperforin in an extract in less than 5 min. Good linearity over the range 0.5-200 microg/mL for hyperforin and 0.02-100 microg/mL for hypericin was observed. Intra-assay accuracy and precision varied from 0.1 to 17% within these ranges. Lower levels of quantitative determination were 2 microg/mL for hyperforin and 0.5 microg/mL for hypericin, while detection limits were 0.1 and 0.02 microg/mL, respectively.
PubMed ID
14516003 View in PubMed
Less detail

LC/MS/MS identification of glycosides produced by biotransformation of cinnamyl alcohol in Rhodiola rosea compact callus aggregates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9381
Source
Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Oct;18(8):550-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Ari Tolonen
Zsuzsanna György
Jorma Jalonen
Peter Neubauer
Anja Hohtola
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. ari.tolonen@oulu.fi
Source
Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Oct;18(8):550-8
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biotransformation
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Glycosides - analysis - biosynthesis
Propanols - metabolism
Resins, Plant - analysis - metabolism
Rhodiola - metabolism
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Spectrum Analysis, Mass - methods
Abstract
Cinnamyl alcohol was added to the media of compact callus aggregates (CCA) of Rhodiola rosea for stimulating the production of cinnamyl glycosides. The biotransformation reaction produced high amounts of rosin, while only a very low amount of rosavin was produced. As the consumption rate of cinnamyl alcohol was much higher than production of rosin, the aqueous methanol extracts of compact callus aggregates were studied by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric methods and four new unexpected biotransformation products of cinnamyl alcohol were identified.
PubMed ID
15386517 View in PubMed
Less detail

Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Rhodiola rosea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature69174
Source
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 Apr;51(4):467-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Ari Tolonen
Minna Pakonen
Anja Hohtola
Jorma Jalonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, University of Oulu, Finland. ari.tolonen@oulu.fi
Source
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2003 Apr;51(4):467-70
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Glycosides - chemistry - isolation & purification
Phenylpropionates - chemistry - isolation & purification
Plant Extracts - chemistry - isolation & purification
Plant Roots
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rhodiola
Abstract
Rhodiola rosea L. (Golden Root) has been used for a long time as an adaptogen in Chinese traditional medicine and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. Along its known secondary metabolites tyrosol (1), salidroside (rhodioloside) (2), rosin (3), rosarin (4), rosavin (5), sachaliside 1 (6) and 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), four compounds were isolated from aqueous methanol extract of the plant and identified as cinnamyl-(6'-O-beta-xylopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), 4-methoxy-cinnamyl-(6'-O-alpha-arabinopyranosyl)-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9), picein (10) and benzyl-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11) by UV, MS and NMR methods. Compounds 8 and 9 are new natural compounds whereas compounds 10 and 11 were isolated first time from R. rosea. Also the compounds 6 and 7 are isolated earlier only from the callus cultures of the plant but not from the differentiated plant.
PubMed ID
12673010 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.