Early treatment for cryptorchidism may be necessary to preserve fertility. International guidelines now recommend that congenital cryptorchidism be treated with orchiopexy before age 1 year. Acquired cryptorchidism should be treated at presentation. To our knowledge the rate of adherence to these guidelines in recent years is unknown. Thus, we present data on age at cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy in recent Danish birth cohorts.
A population of 508,964 Danish boys born alive from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2009 was identified using the Danish Civil Registration System. Five birth cohorts were defined, including 1995 to 1997, 1998 to 2000, 2001 to 2003, 2004 to 2006 and 2007 to 2009. The boys were followed in the Danish National Patient Registry for a diagnosis of cryptorchidism and for an orchiopexy procedure. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression models.
During followup 10,094 boys were diagnosed with cryptorchidism, of whom 5,473 underwent orchiopexy. Mean age at diagnosis in boys followed at least 6 years was 3.3 years (95% CI 3.3-3.4) in the 1995 to 1997 cohort, 3.1 (95% CI 3.1-3.2) in the 1998 to 2000 cohort and 2.9 (95% CI 2.8-2.9) in the 2001 to 2003 cohort while mean age at orchiopexy was 3.8 (3.7-3.9), 3.6 (3.5-3.7) and 3.3 years (3.2-3.4), respectively.
In the more recent birth cohorts of 1995 to 2009 we observed a shift toward younger age at cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy.
We investigated the association between the amount of alcohol-based hand rub (hereafter, "hand rub") used and the incidence of healthcare-acquired bloodstream infection (HCR-BSI) from 2004 through early 2008. The amount of hand rub used increased significantly, and the incidence of HCR-BSI remained stable. There was no significant association between the amount of hand rub used and the incidence of HCR-BSI.
To examine the association between low serum vitamin D concentration and estimates of male reproductive function.
From a Danish pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987, 347 sons were selected for a study conducted in 2005-2006.
Semen parameters and reproductive hormones were related to vitamin D concentrations in 307 men.
Semen characteristics and reproductive hormones.
A high vitamin D level was unexpectedly associated with lower crude median total sperm count and percentage of normal morphology sperm and a high level of crude median sex hormone-binding globulin and FSH. After adjustment, the associations attenuated to nonsignificant associations, except for sex hormone-binding globulin. Additionally, adjusted free androgen index was lower at higher vitamin D levels, and men with high vitamin D had 11% (95% confidence interval, 1%-20%) lower free androgen index compared with men with low vitamin D.
These results do not indicate that low vitamin D is a risk factor for poor semen quality in a population of young healthy men, but we may not have enough men with low vitamin D levels to detect an effect. New studies should include a larger proportion of vitamin D-deficient men.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if birth weight is associated with early-onset breast cancer. The mechanism behind an association with high birth weight could be the link between fetal growth and estrogens in utero. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Denmark including 881 women with breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 40 years and 3,423 age-matched controls. Information concerning birth weight and other birth-related variables was obtained from midwife reports. RESULTS: The risk of early-onset breast cancer was increased 1.25 times (95% CI 1.00-2.51) for birth weights above 4,000 g and 1.59 times (95% CI 1.00-1.55) for birth weights below 2,500 g in comparison with birthweights of 3,000-3,499 g. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that high birth weight is associated with breast cancer is compatible with the hypothesis that level of estrogen during pregnancy is related to breast cancer in early adult life. The finding that low birth weight is also associated with breast cancer may indicate that other characteristics of the fetal environment may be important for breast cancer in early adult life.
The use of paracetamol has been associated with increased risks for urinary tract cancers and decreased risk for ovarian cancer, although results have been inconsistent. We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Prescription Database of North Jutland County and the Danish Cancer Registry. Cancer incidence among 39,946 individuals receiving prescriptions for paracetamol was compared with expected incidence based on the North Jutland population who did not receive paracetamol prescriptions, during a 9-year follow-up period. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for cancers overall and at selected sites. Overall, 2,173 cancers were observed with 1,973 expected, yielding a SIR of 1.10 (95% CI, 1.06-1.15). Significantly elevated SIRs were found for cancers of the esophagus (1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8) and lung (1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.7). Nonsignificantly increased SIRs were observed for cancers of the liver (1.5; 95% CI, 0.96-2.2), renal parenchyma (1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.7) and renal pelvis/ureter (1.6; 95% CI, 0.96-2.6), whereas the SIR for cancer of the urinary bladder was close to unity (1.1; 95% CI, 0.9-1.4). For ovarian cancer, the SIR was close to expectation (0.9; 95% CI, 0.6-1.2) with no evidence of trends with duration of follow-up or number of prescriptions. A similar risk pattern was observed after exclusion of person-time experience following prescription for aspirin or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the study cohort and reference population. Our results do not support a major role for paracetamol in the development of cancers of the urinary tract, and we found little evidence of a protective effect of paracetamol against ovarian cancer. The elevated risks for cancers of the esophagus, lung and liver are most likely a result of confounding variables, but may warrant further investigation.
Early delivery and low birth weight are strong predictors of the urogenital anomalies cryptorchidism (undescended testis) and hypospadias. Understanding these associations may lead to important etiologic clues. Therefore, the authors revisited the prevailing hypotheses regarding fetal growth restriction as a risk factor for urogenital anomalies. They studied a population of 934,538 Danish boys born alive between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2008. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias were associated with low weight-for-gestational-age, an indicator of fetal growth restriction, and furthermore the authors observed strong interaction with early delivery. Low birth weight in a singleton compared with the mean birth weight of all singleton brothers in the family or in a twin compared with the male co-twin was associated with higher risk of urogenital anomalies, suggesting an effect of relative fetal growth restriction within families. Contrary to previous reports, newborns' body dimensions assessed independently of birth weight were not associated with urogenital anomalies. The hypothesis that shared factors cause both fetal growth restriction and urogenital anomalies was supported by comparison of urogenital anomaly risks in singletons and twins and by patterns of cryptorchidism and hypospadias co-occurrence in individuals. These novel insights might also extend to other male reproductive conditions with prenatal etiology.
OBJECTIVE: To study concordance rates of cryptorchidism (undescended testis) in pairs of boys with varying family structure, to evaluate the risk contribution from the intrauterine environment and genetic factors. DESIGN: Population based study of 1,024,500 Danish boys born from January 1, 1973 to December 31, 2004. Classic twin method and computerized square dance design. SETTING: Hospitals and outpatient clinics. PATIENT(S): Six groups of boy pairs: boys with no relation, paternal half-brothers, maternal half-brothers, full brothers, dizygotic twin brothers, and monozygotic twin brothers. INTERVENTION(S): Observational study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Status on each individual regarding cryptorchidism and orchiopexy from the Danish National Patient Register. RESULT(S): Concordance rates of cryptorchidism in the groups were as follows: boys with no relation 3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.7%-3.6%), paternal half-brothers 3.4% (2.3%-4.7%), maternal half-brothers 6.0% (4.5%-7.7%), full brothers 8.8% (8.3%-9.8%), dizygotic twin brothers 24.1% (16.0%-33.6%), and monozygotic twin brothers 27.3% (15.5%-41.2%). CONCLUSION(S): The concordance rate was higher in maternal than in paternal half-brothers, and much higher but of equal magnitude in both twin groups. The findings strongly support that the intrauterine environment and maternal inheritance are contributing to the occurrence of cryptorchidism.
BACKGROUND: Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may interfere with reproductive function but direct evidence in humans is very limited. METHODS: Fertility was examined in four regions with contrasting blood levels of POPs. Pregnant women and their partners in Warsaw (Poland), Kharkiv (Ukraine) and Greenland were consecutively enrolled during antenatal visits. Swedish fishermen and their spouses were recruited separately and independently of current pregnancy. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (DDE) were available for both partners. Time to pregnancy interviews were obtained among 2269 women and 798 men provided a semen sample. RESULTS: Inuits had high levels of both POP markers, Swedish fishermen were high in CB-153 but low in DDE, men from Kharkiv were high in DDE and low in CB-153 while men from Warsaw were low in CB-153 and had intermediate DDE levels. Compared to Warsaw couples, fecundability was reduced among couples from Kharkiv [adjusted fecundability ratio (FR) 0.64 (95% CI 0.5-0.8)] and elevated in Swedish fishermen families [FR 1.26 (95% CI 1.0-1.6)]. Adjusted geometric means of sperm counts and morphology did not differ between regions while sperm motility was higher in men living in Warsaw. CONCLUSION: We observed regional differences in time to pregnancy and sperm motility that may be related to regional differences in POP blood levels, but other interpretations are also plausible. In particular, differences in access to safe contraception and in the prevalence of contraceptive failures are most likely to bias comparisons of time to pregnancy.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the number of hospital discharges and 30-day case fatalities due to drug poisoning based on data from a Danish County Hospital Discharge Registry from 1979 to 2002. METHODS: All patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of drug poisoning were identified and separated into groups taking: (1) opioid analgesics; (2) non-opioid analgesics; (3) anxiolytics; (4) antidepressants; (5) antipsychotics; or (6) non-specified. Paracetamol and salicylate were analysed separately. From 1994 to 2001, the total amount of drugs sold in the county was identified from a national drug database. RESULTS: A total of 13,432 patients with a median age 41.5 years at discharge of whom 59% were females accounted for 20,249 discharges for drug poisoning. The overall number of discharges remained essentially stable around 170 discharges per 100,000 inhabitants per year. From the mid-1990's, paracetamol became the most frequently used drug in poisoning with the largest increase in female teenagers. Thirty-day case fatality in poisoning with opioids was 3.6% compared with around 1% in other drug categories. For most drug categories, a sale of around 80,000 defined daily doses was associated with one hospital discharge due to drug poisoning. CONCLUSION: The overall number of hospital discharges remained stable and seems primarily related to amount of drugs available. With almost 10 years delay, the easier access to paracetamol was followed by an increase in hospitalisation due to poisoning with paracetamol. However, although the majority of hospitalisations were found in the younger age group, the highest mortality was seen among the elderly.
Infective endocarditis is a serious bacterial infection, but there are relatively few data about its occurrence and prognosis. The incidence rate, 30-d case fatality and mortality rate of infective endocarditis were estimated in this registry-based cohort study. The Danish National Registry of Patients was used to estimate national incidence rates, and information on the date of death was obtained through linkage to the Civil Registration System. The study included 3351 patients with infective endocarditis from 1980 to 1997. The incidence rate for men increased from 4 to 6 per 100,000 person-years, and for women from 3 to 4 per 100,000 person-years. The mean incidence rate varied from 1.5 per 100,000 person-years in women younger than 50 y to 15.5 in men older than 70 y. The incidence increased in most age groups but was most pronounced in younger men. The overall 30-d case fatality rate of 23% increased with age and decreased with calendar time. The mean mortality rate was 0.94 per 100,000 y and decreased in the study period in most age groups. There was an increasing incidence of infective endocarditis and an improvement in the prognosis.