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Material flow analysis of NdFeB magnets for Denmark: a comprehensive waste flow sampling and analysis approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268962
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Oct 21;48(20):12229-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-21-2014
Author
Komal Habib
Peter Klausen Schibye
Andreas Peter Vestbø
Ole Dall
Henrik Wenzel
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Oct 21;48(20):12229-37
Date
Oct-21-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Boron
Denmark
Dysprosium
Iron
Magnets - chemistry
Metals, Rare Earth
Neodymium
Recycling
Abstract
Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets have become highly desirable for modern hi-tech applications. These magnets, in general, contain two key rare earth elements (REEs), i.e., neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy), which are responsible for the very high strength of these magnets, allowing for considerable size and weight reduction in modern applications. This study aims to explore the current and future potential of a secondary supply of neodymium and dysprosium from recycling of NdFeB magnets. For this purpose, material flow analysis (MFA) has been carried out to perform the detailed mapping of stocks and flows of NdFeB magnets in Denmark. A novel element of this study is the value added to the traditionally practiced MFAs at national and/or global levels by complementing them with a comprehensive sampling and elemental analysis of NdFeB magnets, taken out from a sample of 157 different products representing 18 various product types. The results show that the current amount of neodymium and dysprosium in NdFeB magnets present in the Danish waste stream is only 3 and 0.2 Mg, respectively. However, this number is estimated to increase to 175 Mg of neodymium and 11.4 Mg of dysprosium by 2035. Nevertheless, efficient recovery of these elements from a very diverse electronic waste stream remains a logistic and economic challenge.
PubMed ID
25238428 View in PubMed
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Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277589
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Nov 10;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-10-2016
Author
Louise Josefine Belmonte
Lisbeth M Ottosen
Gunvor Marie Kirkelund
Pernille Erland Jensen
Andreas Peter Vestbø
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Nov 10;
Date
Nov-10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different particulate waste materials, were fired and material properties and heavy metal leaching tests were conducted before and after firing. Remediation techniques (washing in distilled water and electrodialytical treatment) applied to the fly ash reduced leaching before firing. The mine tailings and bottom ash brick discs obtained satisfactory densities (1669-2007 kg/m(3)) and open porosities (27.9-39.9%). In contrast, the fly ash brick discs had low densities (1313-1578 kg/m(3)) and high open porosities (42.1-51. %). However, leaching tests on crushed brick discs revealed that heavy metals generally became more available after firing for all the investigated materials and that further optimisation is therefore necessary prior to incorporation in bricks.
PubMed ID
27832436 View in PubMed
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Screening of heavy metal containing waste types for use as raw material in Arctic clay-based bricks.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297774
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32831-32843
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Louise Josefine Belmonte
Lisbeth M Ottosen
Gunvor Marie Kirkelund
Pernille Erland Jensen
Andreas Peter Vestbø
Author Affiliation
Arctic Technology Centre, DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32831-32843
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Clay - chemistry
Coal Ash - analysis - chemistry
Construction Materials - analysis
Greenland
Incineration
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Mining
Refuse Disposal - methods
Solid Waste - analysis
Water - chemistry
Abstract
In the vulnerable Arctic environment, the impact of especially hazardous wastes can have severe consequences and the reduction and safe handling of these waste types are therefore an important issue. In this study, two groups of heavy metal containing particulate waste materials, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly and bottom ashes and mine tailings (i.e., residues from the mineral resource industry) from Greenland were screened in order to determine their suitability as secondary resources in clay-based brick production. Small clay discs, containing 20 or 40% of the different particulate waste materials, were fired and material properties and heavy metal leaching tests were conducted before and after firing. Remediation techniques (washing in distilled water and electrodialytical treatment) applied to the fly ash reduced leaching before firing. The mine tailings and bottom ash brick discs obtained satisfactory densities (1669-2007 kg/m3) and open porosities (27.9-39.9%). In contrast, the fly ash brick discs had low densities (1313-1578 kg/m3) and high open porosities (42.1-51. %). However, leaching tests on crushed brick discs revealed that heavy metals generally became more available after firing for all the investigated materials and that further optimisation is therefore necessary prior to incorporation in bricks.
PubMed ID
27832436 View in PubMed
Less detail