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Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148346
Source
Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):1758-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-3-2009
Author
Helena Malmström
M Thomas P Gilbert
Mark G Thomas
Mikael Brandström
Jan Storå
Petra Molnar
Pernille K Andersen
Christian Bendixen
Gunilla Holmlund
Anders Götherström
Eske Willerslev
Author Affiliation
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Source
Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):1758-62
Date
Nov-3-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history
Anthropology, Physical
DNA, Mitochondrial - chemistry
Emigration and Immigration - history
Genetic Variation
History, Ancient
Humans
Scandinavia
Abstract
The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence of the two cultures in Scandinavia has been cited as an argument against population replacement between the Mesolithic and the present [7, 8]. Through analysis of DNA extracted from ancient Scandinavian human remains, we show that people of the Pitted Ware culture were not the direct ancestors of modern Scandinavians (including the Saami people of northern Scandinavia) but are more closely related to contemporary populations of the eastern Baltic region. Our findings support hypotheses arising from archaeological analyses that propose a Neolithic or post-Neolithic population replacement in Scandinavia [7]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations.
Notes
Comment In: Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):R948-919889371
PubMed ID
19781941 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ancient DNA sequences point to a large loss of mitochondrial genetic diversity in the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) since the Pleistocene.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100381
Source
Mol Ecol. 2010 Nov;19(22):4863-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Paula F Campos
Tommy Kristensen
Ludovic Orlando
Andrei Sher
Marina V Kholodova
Anders Götherström
Michael Hofreiter
Dorothée G Drucker
Pavel Kosintsev
Alexei Tikhonov
Gennady F Baryshnikov
Eske Willerslev
M Thomas P Gilbert
Author Affiliation
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Mol Ecol. 2010 Nov;19(22):4863-75
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Prior to the Holocene, the range of the saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) spanned from France to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although its distribution subsequently contracted to the steppes of Central Asia, historical records indicate that it remained extremely abundant until the end of the Soviet Union, after which its populations were reduced by over 95%. We have analysed the mitochondrial control region sequence variation of 27 ancient and 38 modern specimens, to assay how the species' genetic diversity has changed since the Pleistocene. Phylogenetic analyses reveal the existence of two well-supported, and clearly distinct, clades of saiga. The first, spanning a time range from >49,500 (14) C ybp to the present, comprises all the modern specimens and ancient samples from the Northern Urals, Middle Urals and Northeast Yakutia. The second clade is exclusive to the Northern Urals and includes samples dating from between 40,400 to 10,250 (14) C ybp. Current genetic diversity is much lower than that present during the Pleistocene, an observation that data modelling using serial coalescent indicates cannot be explained by genetic drift in a population of constant size. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses show the observed data is more compatible with a drastic population size reduction (c. 66-77%) following either a demographic bottleneck in the course of the Holocene or late Pleistocene, or a geographic fragmentation (followed by local extinction of one subpopulation) at the Holocene/Pleistocene transition.
PubMed ID
20874761 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ancient mitochondrial DNA from the northern fringe of the Neolithic farming expansion in Europe sheds light on the dispersion process.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265418
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jan 19;370(1660):20130373
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-19-2015
Author
Helena Malmström
Anna Linderholm
Pontus Skoglund
Jan Storå
Per Sjödin
M Thomas P Gilbert
Gunilla Holmlund
Eske Willerslev
Mattias Jakobsson
Kerstin Lidén
Anders Götherström
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2015 Jan 19;370(1660):20130373
Date
Jan-19-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history
Base Sequence
Computational Biology
DNA Primers - genetics
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics - history
Gene Flow
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
History, Ancient
Human Migration - history
Humans
Models, Genetic
Molecular Sequence Data
Population Dynamics
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sweden
Abstract
The European Neolithization process started around 12 000 years ago in the Near East. The introduction of agriculture spread north and west throughout Europe and a key question has been if this was brought about by migrating individuals, by an exchange of ideas or a by a mixture of these. The earliest farming evidence in Scandinavia is found within the Funnel Beaker Culture complex (Trichterbecherkultur, TRB) which represents the northernmost extension of Neolithic farmers in Europe. The TRB coexisted for almost a millennium with hunter-gatherers of the Pitted Ware Cultural complex (PWC). If migration was a substantial part of the Neolithization, even the northerly TRB community would display a closer genetic affinity to other farmer populations than to hunter-gatherer populations. We deep-sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 from seven farmers (six TRB and one Battle Axe complex, BAC) and 13 hunter-gatherers (PWC) and authenticated the sequences using postmortem DNA damage patterns. A comparison with 124 previously published sequences from prehistoric Europe shows that the TRB individuals share a close affinity to Central European farmer populations, and that they are distinct from hunter-gatherer groups, including the geographically close and partially contemporary PWC that show a close affinity to the European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25487325 View in PubMed
Less detail

Complete genomes reveal signatures of demographic and genetic declines in the woolly mammoth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272057
Source
Curr Biol. 2015 May 18;25(10):1395-400
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-18-2015
Author
Eleftheria Palkopoulou
Swapan Mallick
Pontus Skoglund
Jacob Enk
Nadin Rohland
Heng Li
Ayça Omrak
Sergey Vartanyan
Hendrik Poinar
Anders Götherström
David Reich
Love Dalén
Source
Curr Biol. 2015 May 18;25(10):1395-400
Date
May-18-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Extinction, Biological
Female
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population
Genome
Heterozygote
Mammoths - genetics
Population Density
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Siberia
Abstract
The processes leading up to species extinctions are typically characterized by prolonged declines in population size and geographic distribution, followed by a phase in which populations are very small and may be subject to intrinsic threats, including loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding. However, whether such genetic factors have had an impact on species prior to their extinction is unclear; examining this would require a detailed reconstruction of a species' demographic history as well as changes in genome-wide diversity leading up to its extinction. Here, we present high-quality complete genome sequences from two woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). The first mammoth was sequenced at 17.1-fold coverage and dates to ~4,300 years before present, representing one of the last surviving individuals on Wrangel Island. The second mammoth, sequenced at 11.2-fold coverage, was obtained from an ~44,800-year-old specimen from the Late Pleistocene population in northeastern Siberia. The demographic trajectories inferred from the two genomes are qualitatively similar and reveal a population bottleneck during the Middle or Early Pleistocene, and a more recent severe decline in the ancestors of the Wrangel mammoth at the end of the last glaciation. A comparison of the two genomes shows that the Wrangel mammoth has a 20% reduction in heterozygosity as well as a 28-fold increase in the fraction of the genome that comprises runs of homozygosity. We conclude that the population on Wrangel Island, which was the last surviving woolly mammoth population, was subject to reduced genetic diversity shortly before it became extinct.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25913407 View in PubMed
Less detail

Consequences of past climate change and recent human persecution on mitogenomic diversity in the arctic fox.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308370
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 12 23; 374(1788):20190212
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-23-2019
Author
Petter Larsson
Johanna von Seth
Ingerid J Hagen
Anders Götherström
Semyon Androsov
Mietje Germonpré
Nora Bergfeldt
Sergey Fedorov
Nina E Eide
Natalia Sokolova
Dominique Berteaux
Anders Angerbjörn
Øystein Flagstad
Valeri Plotnikov
Karin Norén
David Díez-Del-Molino
Nicolas Dussex
David W G Stanton
Love Dalén
Author Affiliation
Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 12 23; 374(1788):20190212
Date
12-23-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animal Distribution
Animals
Climate change
DNA, Ancient - analysis
Fossils
Foxes - genetics - physiology
Genetic Variation
Genome, Mitochondrial
Human Activities
Population Dynamics
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Abstract
Ancient DNA provides a powerful means to investigate the timing, rate and extent of population declines caused by extrinsic factors, such as past climate change and human activities. One species probably affected by both these factors is the arctic fox, which had a large distribution during the last glaciation that subsequently contracted at the start of the Holocene. More recently, the arctic fox population in Scandinavia went through a demographic bottleneck owing to human persecution. To investigate the consequences of these processes, we generated mitogenome sequences from a temporal dataset comprising Pleistocene, historical and modern arctic fox samples. We found no evidence that Pleistocene populations in mid-latitude Europe or Russia contributed to the present-day gene pool of the Scandinavian population, suggesting that postglacial climate warming led to local population extinctions. Furthermore, during the twentieth-century bottleneck in Scandinavia, at least half of the mitogenome haplotypes were lost, consistent with a 20-fold reduction in female effective population size. In conclusion, these results suggest that the arctic fox in mainland Western Europe has lost genetic diversity as a result of both past climate change and human persecution. Consequently, it might be particularly vulnerable to the future challenges posed by climate change. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The past is a foreign country: how much can the fossil record actually inform conservation?'
PubMed ID
31679495 View in PubMed
Less detail

A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287199
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017 Dec;164(4):853-860
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2017
Author
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson
Anna Kjellström
Torun Zachrisson
Maja Krzewinska
Veronica Sobrado
Neil Price
Torsten Günther
Mattias Jakobsson
Anders Götherström
Jan Storå
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017 Dec;164(4):853-860
Date
Dec-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anthropology, Physical
Burial - history
DNA - analysis - genetics
Female
Genomics
History, Medieval
Humans
Military Personnel - history
Sweden - ethnology
Abstract
The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue.
Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual.
The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin.
The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies.
PubMed ID
28884802 View in PubMed
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The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256691
Source
Science. 2014 Aug 29;345(6200):1255832
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-29-2014
Author
Maanasa Raghavan
Michael DeGiorgio
Anders Albrechtsen
Ida Moltke
Pontus Skoglund
Thorfinn S Korneliussen
Bjarne Grønnow
Martin Appelt
Hans Christian Gulløv
T Max Friesen
William Fitzhugh
Helena Malmström
Simon Rasmussen
Jesper Olsen
Linea Melchior
Benjamin T Fuller
Simon M Fahrni
Thomas Stafford
Vaughan Grimes
M A Priscilla Renouf
Jerome Cybulski
Niels Lynnerup
Marta Mirazon Lahr
Kate Britton
Rick Knecht
Jette Arneborg
Mait Metspalu
Omar E Cornejo
Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas
Yong Wang
Morten Rasmussen
Vibha Raghavan
Thomas V O Hansen
Elza Khusnutdinova
Tracey Pierre
Kirill Dneprovsky
Claus Andreasen
Hans Lange
M Geoffrey Hayes
Joan Coltrain
Victor A Spitsyn
Anders Götherström
Ludovic Orlando
Toomas Kivisild
Richard Villems
Michael H Crawford
Finn C Nielsen
Jørgen Dissing
Jan Heinemeier
Morten Meldgaard
Carlos Bustamante
Dennis H O'Rourke
Mattias Jakobsson
M Thomas P Gilbert
Rasmus Nielsen
Eske Willerslev
Author Affiliation
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Science. 2014 Aug 29;345(6200):1255832
Date
Aug-29-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - ethnology
Arctic regions - ethnology
Base Sequence
Bone and Bones
Canada - ethnology
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Genome, Human - genetics
Greenland - ethnology
Hair
History, Ancient
Human Migration
Humans
Inuits - ethnology - genetics - history
Molecular Sequence Data
Siberia - ethnology
Survivors - history
Tooth
Abstract
The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.
Notes
Comment In: Science. 2014 Aug 29;345(6200):1004-525170138
PubMed ID
25170159 View in PubMed
Less detail

The genomic ancestry of the Scandinavian Battle Axe Culture people and their relation to the broader Corded Ware horizon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308715
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2019 10 09; 286(1912):20191528
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-09-2019
Author
Helena Malmström
Torsten Günther
Emma M Svensson
Anna Juras
Magdalena Fraser
Arielle R Munters
Lukasz Pospieszny
Mari Tõrv
Jonathan Lindström
Anders Götherström
Jan Storå
Mattias Jakobsson
Author Affiliation
Human Evolution, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2019 10 09; 286(1912):20191528
Date
10-09-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Baltic States
Base Sequence
Culture
DNA, Ancient
Europe
European Continental Ancestry Group
Farmers
Genomics
History, Ancient
Human Migration
Humans
Poland
Population Dynamics
Scandinavian and Nordic Countries
Sweden
Abstract
The Neolithic period is characterized by major cultural transformations and human migrations, with lasting effects across Europe. To understand the population dynamics in Neolithic Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea area, we investigate the genomes of individuals associated with the Battle Axe Culture (BAC), a Middle Neolithic complex in Scandinavia resembling the continental Corded Ware Culture (CWC). We sequenced 11 individuals (dated to 3330-1665 calibrated before common era (cal BCE)) from modern-day Sweden, Estonia, and Poland to 0.26-3.24× coverage. Three of the individuals were from CWC contexts and two from the central-Swedish BAC burial 'Bergsgraven'. By analysing these genomes together with the previously published data, we show that the BAC represents a group different from other Neolithic populations in Scandinavia, revealing stratification among cultural groups. Similar to continental CWC, the BAC-associated individuals display ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian steppe herders, as well as smaller components originating from hunter-gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers. Thus, the steppe ancestry seen in these Scandinavian BAC individuals can be explained only by migration into Scandinavia. Furthermore, we highlight the reuse of megalithic tombs of the earlier Funnel Beaker Culture (FBC) by people related to BAC. The BAC groups likely mixed with resident middle Neolithic farmers (e.g. FBC) without substantial contributions from Neolithic foragers.
PubMed ID
31594508 View in PubMed
Less detail

Human population dynamics and Yersinia pestis in ancient northeast Asia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303689
Source
Sci Adv. 2021 Jan; 7(2):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2021
Author
Gülsah Merve Kilinç
Natalija Kashuba
Dilek Koptekin
Nora Bergfeldt
Handan Melike Dönertas
Ricardo Rodríguez-Varela
Dmitrij Shergin
Grigorij Ivanov
Dmitrii Kichigin
Kjunnej Pestereva
Denis Volkov
Pavel Mandryka
Artur Kharinskii
Alexey Tishkin
Evgenij Ineshin
Evgeniy Kovychev
Aleksandr Stepanov
Love Dalén
Torsten Günther
Emrah Kirdök
Mattias Jakobsson
Mehmet Somel
Maja Krzewinska
Jan Storå
Anders Götherström
Author Affiliation
Archaeological Research Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. anders.gotherstrom@arklab.su.se jan.stora@ofl.su.se gulsahkilinc@hacettepe.edu.tr.
Source
Sci Adv. 2021 Jan; 7(2):
Date
Jan-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
We present genome-wide data from 40 individuals dating to c.16,900 to 550 years ago in northeast Asia. We describe hitherto unknown gene flow and admixture events in the region, revealing a complex population history. While populations east of Lake Baikal remained relatively stable from the Mesolithic to the Bronze Age, those from Yakutia and west of Lake Baikal witnessed major population transformations, from the Late Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic, and during the Bronze Age, respectively. We further locate the Asian ancestors of Paleo-Inuits, using direct genetic evidence. Last, we report the most northeastern ancient occurrence of the plague-related bacterium, Yersinia pestis Our findings indicate the highly connected and dynamic nature of northeast Asia populations throughout the Holocene.
PubMed ID
33523963 View in PubMed
Less detail

Investigating Holocene human population history in North Asia using ancient mitogenomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292311
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 12; 8(1):8969
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-12-2018
Author
Gülsah Merve Kilinç
Natalija Kashuba
Reyhan Yaka
Arev Pelin Sümer
Eren Yüncü
Dmitrij Shergin
Grigorij Leonidovich Ivanov
Dmitrii Kichigin
Kjunnej Pestereva
Denis Volkov
Pavel Mandryka
Artur Kharinskii
Alexey Tishkin
Evgenij Ineshin
Evgeniy Kovychev
Aleksandr Stepanov
Aanatolij Alekseev
Svetlana Aleksandrovna Fedoseeva
Mehmet Somel
Mattias Jakobsson
Maja Krzewinska
Jan Storå
Anders Götherström
Author Affiliation
Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden. gulsahhdal@gmail.com.
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 12; 8(1):8969
Date
Jun-12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Archaeogenomic studies have largely elucidated human population history in West Eurasia during the Stone Age. However, despite being a broad geographical region of significant cultural and linguistic diversity, little is known about the population history in North Asia. We present complete mitochondrial genome sequences together with stable isotope data for 41 serially sampled ancient individuals from North Asia, dated between c.13,790 BP and c.1,380 BP extending from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences and haplogroup data of these individuals revealed the highest genetic affinity to present-day North Asian populations of the same geographical region suggesting a possible long-term maternal genetic continuity in the region. We observed a decrease in genetic diversity over time and a reduction of maternal effective population size (Ne) approximately seven thousand years before present. Coalescent simulations were consistent with genetic continuity between present day individuals and individuals dating to 7,000 BP, 4,800 BP or 3,000 BP. Meanwhile, genetic differences observed between 7,000 BP and 3,000 BP as well as between 4,800 BP and 3,000 BP were inconsistent with genetic drift alone, suggesting gene flow into the region from distant gene pools or structure within the population. These results indicate that despite some level of continuity between ancient groups and present-day populations, the region exhibits a complex demographic history during the Holocene.
Notes
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