The association between milk and dairy intake and the incidence of cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and mortality has been evaluated in many studies, but these studies have had conflicting results with no clear conclusion on causal or confounding associations. The present study aims to further address this association by cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation of the associations between exposure to various types of dairy products and metabolic risk markers among inhabitants in northern Sweden while taking other lifestyle factors into account.
Respondents in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme with complete and plausible diet data between 1991 and 2016 were included, yielding 124,934 observations from 90,512 unique subjects. For longitudinal analysis, 27,682 participants with a visit 8-12?years after the first visit were identified. All participants completed a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Metabolic risk markers, including body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum (S) cholesterol and triglycerides, and blood glucose, were measured. Participants were categorized into quintiles by intake of dairy products, and risk (odds ratios, OR) of undesirable levels of metabolic risk markers was assessed in multivariable logistic regression analyses. In longitudinal analyses, intake quintiles were related to desirable levels of metabolic risk markers at both visits or deterioration at follow-up using Cox regression analyses.
The OR of being classified with an undesirable BMI decreased with increasing quintiles of total dairy, cheese and butter intake but increased with increasing non-fermented milk intake. The OR of being classified with an undesirable S-cholesterol level increased with increasing intake of total dairy, butter and high fat (3%) non-fermented milk, whereas an undesirable S-triglyceride level was inversely associated with cheese and butter intake in women. In longitudinal analyses, increasing butter intake was associated with deterioration of S-cholesterol and blood glucose levels, whereas increasing cheese intake was associated with a lower risk of deterioration of S-triglycerides.
Confounding factors likely contribute to the demonstrated association between dairy intake and mortality, and other medical conditions and analyses should be stratified by dairy type.
Dairy products are important constituents of most diets, and their association with adverse health outcomes remains a focus. We characterized dairy food intake and examined associations with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke among 108,065 Swedish men and women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in a population characterized by high milk tolerance. During a mean follow-up of 14.2 years, 11,641 first-time events occurred. Non-fermented milk intake decreased, whereas butter intake increased over the period. For high intake of non-fermented milk, the HR (95% CI) for developing T2D and MI was 1.17 (1.03, 1.34) and 1.23 (1.10, 1.37), respectively, in men. A greater intake of butter, fermented milk, and cheese tended to be associated with a reduced risk of T2D and/or MI. Non-consumers and those who chose low-fat variants of the targeted dairy products had increased risk for T2D, MI, or stroke compared to those in the non-case group. Generally, effect-sizes were small. This prospective study found that non-fermented milk was associated with an increased risk for developing T2D and MI and that subjects abstaining from dairy products or choosing low-fat variants were at greater risk. However, the overall cardiometabolic risk of non-fermented milk intake was judged as low, since the effect sizes were small.
Bovine milk intake has been associated with various disease outcomes, with modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiome being suggested as one potential mechanism. The aim of the present study was to explore the oral microbiota in relation to variation in self-reported milk intake. Saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing, PCR and cultivation in 154 Swedish adolescents, and information on diet and other lifestyle markers were obtained from a questionnaire, and dental caries from clinical examination. A replication cohort of 31,571 adults with similar information on diet intake, other lifestyle markers and caries was also studied. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling separated adolescents with low milk intake (lowest tertile with
Dental caries, which affects billions of people, is a chronic infectious disease that involves Streptococcus mutans, which is nevertheless a poor predictor of individual caries development. We therefore investigated if adhesin types of S.mutans with sucrose-independent adhesion to host DMBT1 (i.e. SpaP A, B or C) and collagen (i.e. Cnm, Cbm) match and predict individual differences in caries development. The adhesin types were measured in whole saliva by qPCR in 452 12-year-old Swedish children and related to caries at baseline and prospectively at a 5-year follow-up. Strains isolated from the children were explored for genetic and phenotypic properties. The presence of SpaP B and Cnm subtypes coincided with increased 5-year caries increment, and their binding to DMBT1 and saliva correlated with individual caries scores. The SpaP B subtypes are enriched in amino acid substitutions that coincided with caries and binding and specify biotypes of S. mutans with increased acid tolerance. The findings reveal adhesin subtypes of S. mutans that match and predict individual differences in caries development and provide a rationale for individualized oral care.
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 4;111(44):15746-51 PMID 25331888