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Differential arthropod responses to warming are altering the structure of Arctic communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291801
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2018 Apr; 5(4):171503
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-2018
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Niels M Schmidt
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Duke University, Box 30338, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
Source
R Soc Open Sci. 2018 Apr; 5(4):171503
Date
Apr-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The Arctic is experiencing some of the fastest rates of warming on the planet. Although many studies have documented responses to such warming by individual species, the idiosyncratic nature of these findings has prevented us from extrapolating them to community-level predictions. Here, we leverage the availability of a long-term dataset from Zackenberg, Greenland (593?700 specimens collected between 1996 and 2014), to investigate how climate parameters influence the abundance of different arthropod groups and overall community composition. We find that variation in mean seasonal temperatures, winter duration and winter freeze-thaw events is correlated with taxon-specific and habitat-dependent changes in arthropod abundances. In addition, we find that arthropod communities have exhibited compositional changes consistent with the expected effects of recent shifts towards warmer active seasons and fewer freeze-thaw events in NE Greenland. Changes in community composition are up to five times more extreme in drier than wet habitats, with herbivores and parasitoids generally increasing in abundance, while the opposite is true for surface detritivores. These results suggest that species interactions and food web dynamics are changing in the Arctic, with potential implications for key ecosystem processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling and primary productivity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29765633 View in PubMed
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Earlier springs enable high-Arctic wolf spiders to produce a second clutch.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305487
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2020 06 24; 287(1929):20200982
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-24-2020
Author
Toke T Høye
Jean-Claude Kresse
Amanda M Koltz
Joseph J Bowden
Author Affiliation
Arctic Research Centre and Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Grenåvej 14, DK-8410 Rønde, Denmark.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2020 06 24; 287(1929):20200982
Date
06-24-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate
Clutch Size
Female
Greenland
Reproduction
Seasons
Spiders - physiology
Abstract
Spiders at southern latitudes commonly produce multiple clutches, but this has not been observed at high latitudes where activity seasons are much shorter. Yet the timing of snowmelt is advancing in the Arctic, which may allow some species to produce an additional clutch. To determine if this is already happening, we used specimens of the wolf spider Pardosa glacialis caught by pitfall traps from the long-term (1996-2014) monitoring programme at Zackenberg, NE Greenland. We dissected individual egg sacs and counted the number of eggs and partially developed juveniles, and measured carapace width of the mothers. Upon the discovery of a bimodal frequency distribution of clutch sizes, as is typical for wolf spiders at lower latitudes producing a second clutch, we assigned egg sacs to being a first or second clutch depending on clutch size. We tested whether the median capture date differed among first and second clutches, whether clutch size was correlated to female size, and whether the proportion of second clutches produced within a season was related to climate. We found that assigned second clutches appeared significantly later in the season than first clutches. In years with earlier snowmelt, first clutches occurred earlier and the proportion of second clutches produced was larger. Likely, females produce their first clutch earlier in those years which allow them time to produce another clutch. Clutch size for first clutches was correlated to female size, while this was not the case for second clutches. Our results provide the first evidence for Arctic invertebrates producing additional clutches in response to warming. This could be a common but overlooked phenomenon due to the challenges associated with long-term collection of life-history data in the Arctic. Moreover, given that wolf spiders are a widely distributed, important tundra predator, we may expect to see population and food web consequences of their increased reproductive rates.
PubMed ID
32576114 View in PubMed
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Impacts of female body size on cannibalism and juvenile abundance in a dominant arctic spider.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311016
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 08; 89(8):1788-1798
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-2020
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Justin P Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 08; 89(8):1788-1798
Date
08-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Body Size
Cannibalism
Ecosystem
Female
Spiders
Abstract
Body size influences an individual's physiology and the nature of its intra- and interspecific interactions. Changes in this key functional trait can therefore have important implications for populations as well. For example, among invertebrates, there is typically a positive correlation between female body size and reproductive output. Increasing body size can consequently trigger changes in population density, population structure (e.g. adult to juvenile ratio) and the strength of intraspecific competition. Body size changes have been documented in several species in the Arctic, a region that is warming rapidly. In particular, wolf spiders, one of the most abundant arctic invertebrate predators, are becoming larger and therefore more fecund. Whether these changes are affecting their populations and role within food webs is currently unclear. We investigated the population structure and feeding ecology of the dominant wolf spider species Pardosa lapponica at two tundra sites where adult spiders naturally differ in mean body size. Additionally, we performed a mesocosm experiment to investigate how variation in wolf spider density, which is likely to change as a function of body size, influences feeding ecology and its sensitivity to warming. We found that juvenile abundance is negatively associated with female size and that wolf spiders occupied higher trophic positions where adult females were larger. Because female body size is positively related to fecundity in P. lapponica, the unexpected finding of fewer juveniles with larger females suggests an increase in density-dependent cannibalism as a result of increased intraspecific competition for resources. Higher rates of density-dependent cannibalism are further supported by the results from our mesocosm experiment, in which individuals occupied higher trophic positions in plots with higher wolf spider densities. We observed no changes in wolf spider feeding ecology in association with short-term experimental warming. Our results suggest that body size variation in wolf spiders is associated with variation in intraspecific competition, feeding ecology and population structure. Given the widespread distribution of wolf spiders in arctic ecosystems, body size shifts in these predators as a result of climate change could have implications for lower trophic levels and for ecosystem functioning.
PubMed ID
32367582 View in PubMed
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Impacts of female body size on cannibalism and juvenile abundance in a dominant arctic spider.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306043
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 Aug; 89(8):1788-1798
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2020
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Justin P Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2020 Aug; 89(8):1788-1798
Date
Aug-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Body size influences an individual's physiology and the nature of its intra- and interspecific interactions. Changes in this key functional trait can therefore have important implications for populations as well. For example, among invertebrates, there is typically a positive correlation between female body size and reproductive output. Increasing body size can consequently trigger changes in population density, population structure (e.g. adult to juvenile ratio) and the strength of intraspecific competition. Body size changes have been documented in several species in the Arctic, a region that is warming rapidly. In particular, wolf spiders, one of the most abundant arctic invertebrate predators, are becoming larger and therefore more fecund. Whether these changes are affecting their populations and role within food webs is currently unclear. We investigated the population structure and feeding ecology of the dominant wolf spider species Pardosa lapponica at two tundra sites where adult spiders naturally differ in mean body size. Additionally, we performed a mesocosm experiment to investigate how variation in wolf spider density, which is likely to change as a function of body size, influences feeding ecology and its sensitivity to warming. We found that juvenile abundance is negatively associated with female size and that wolf spiders occupied higher trophic positions where adult females were larger. Because female body size is positively related to fecundity in P. lapponica, the unexpected finding of fewer juveniles with larger females suggests an increase in density-dependent cannibalism as a result of increased intraspecific competition for resources. Higher rates of density-dependent cannibalism are further supported by the results from our mesocosm experiment, in which individuals occupied higher trophic positions in plots with higher wolf spider densities. We observed no changes in wolf spider feeding ecology in association with short-term experimental warming. Our results suggest that body size variation in wolf spiders is associated with variation in intraspecific competition, feeding ecology and population structure. Given the widespread distribution of wolf spiders in arctic ecosystems, body size shifts in these predators as a result of climate change could have implications for lower trophic levels and for ecosystem functioning.
PubMed ID
32367582 View in PubMed
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Limited effects of early snowmelt on plants, decomposers, and soil nutrients in Arctic tundra soils.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298520
Source
Ecol Evol. 2019 Feb; 9(4):1820-1844
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2019
Author
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Heidi Steltzer
Patrick F Sullivan
Aliza Segal
Amanda M Koltz
Carolyn Livensperger
Joshua P Schimel
Michael N Weintraub
Author Affiliation
Department of Biological Sciences University of Texas at El Paso El Paso Texas.
Source
Ecol Evol. 2019 Feb; 9(4):1820-1844
Date
Feb-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
In addition to warming temperatures, Arctic ecosystems are responding to climate change with earlier snowmelt and soil thaw. Earlier snowmelt has been examined infrequently in field experiments, and we lack a comprehensive look at belowground responses of the soil biogeochemical system that includes plant roots, decomposers, and soil nutrients. We experimentally advanced the timing of snowmelt in factorial combination with an open-top chamber warming treatment over a 3-year period and evaluated the responses of decomposers and nutrient cycling processes. We tested two alternative hypotheses: (a) Early snowmelt and warming advance the timing of root growth and nutrient uptake, altering the timing of microbial and invertebrate activity and key nutrient cycling events; and (b) loss of insulating snow cover damages plants, leading to reductions in root growth and altered biological activity. During the 3 years of our study (2010-2012), we advanced snowmelt by 4, 15, and 10 days, respectively. Despite advancing aboveground plant phenology, particularly in the year with the warmest early-season temperatures (2012), belowground effects were primarily seen only on the first sampling date of the season or restricted to particular years or soil type. Overall, consistent and substantial responses to early snowmelt were not observed, counter to both of our hypotheses. The data on soil physical conditions, as well interannual comparisons of our results, suggest that this limited response was because of the earlier date of snowmelt that did not coincide with substantially warmer air and soil temperatures as they might in response to a natural climate event. We conclude that the interaction of snowmelt timing with soil temperatures is important to how the ecosystem will respond, but that 1- to 2-week changes in timing of snowmelt alone are not enough to drive season-long changes in soil microbial and nutrient cycling processes.
PubMed ID
30847075 View in PubMed
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Nonlinear trends in abundance and diversity and complex responses to climate change in Arctic arthropods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature312191
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 01 12; 118(2):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-12-2021
Author
Toke T Høye
Sarah Loboda
Amanda M Koltz
Mark A K Gillespie
Joseph J Bowden
Niels M Schmidt
Author Affiliation
Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, DK-8410 Rønde, Denmark; tth@bios.au.dk.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 01 12; 118(2):
Date
01-12-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Arthropods
Biodiversity
Climate change
Population Dynamics
Abstract
Time series data on arthropod populations are critical for understanding the magnitude, direction, and drivers of change. However, most arthropod monitoring programs are short-lived and restricted in taxonomic resolution. Monitoring data from the Arctic are especially underrepresented, yet critical to uncovering and understanding some of the earliest biological responses to rapid environmental change. Clear imprints of climate on the behavior and life history of some Arctic arthropods have been demonstrated, but a synthesis of population-level abundance changes across taxa is lacking. We utilized 24 y of abundance data from Zackenberg in High-Arctic Greenland to assess trends in abundance and diversity and identify potential climatic drivers of abundance changes. Unlike findings from temperate systems, we found a nonlinear pattern, with total arthropod abundance gradually declining during 1996 to 2014, followed by a sharp increase. Family-level diversity showed the opposite pattern, suggesting increasing dominance of a small number of taxa. Total abundance masked more complicated trajectories of family-level abundance, which also frequently varied among habitats. Contrary to expectation in this extreme polar environment, winter and fall conditions and positive density-dependent feedbacks were more common determinants of arthropod dynamics than summer temperature. Together, these data highlight the complexity of characterizing climate change responses even in relatively simple Arctic food webs. Our results underscore the need for data reporting beyond overall trends in biomass or abundance and for including basic research on life history and ecology to achieve a more nuanced understanding of the sensitivity of Arctic and other arthropods to global changes.
PubMed ID
33431570 View in PubMed
Less detail

Nonlinear trends in abundance and diversity and complex responses to climate change in Arctic arthropods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature303747
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jan 12; 118(2):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-12-2021
Author
Toke T Høye
Sarah Loboda
Amanda M Koltz
Mark A K Gillespie
Joseph J Bowden
Niels M Schmidt
Author Affiliation
Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, DK-8410 Rønde, Denmark; tth@bios.au.dk.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jan 12; 118(2):
Date
Jan-12-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Time series data on arthropod populations are critical for understanding the magnitude, direction, and drivers of change. However, most arthropod monitoring programs are short-lived and restricted in taxonomic resolution. Monitoring data from the Arctic are especially underrepresented, yet critical to uncovering and understanding some of the earliest biological responses to rapid environmental change. Clear imprints of climate on the behavior and life history of some Arctic arthropods have been demonstrated, but a synthesis of population-level abundance changes across taxa is lacking. We utilized 24 y of abundance data from Zackenberg in High-Arctic Greenland to assess trends in abundance and diversity and identify potential climatic drivers of abundance changes. Unlike findings from temperate systems, we found a nonlinear pattern, with total arthropod abundance gradually declining during 1996 to 2014, followed by a sharp increase. Family-level diversity showed the opposite pattern, suggesting increasing dominance of a small number of taxa. Total abundance masked more complicated trajectories of family-level abundance, which also frequently varied among habitats. Contrary to expectation in this extreme polar environment, winter and fall conditions and positive density-dependent feedbacks were more common determinants of arthropod dynamics than summer temperature. Together, these data highlight the complexity of characterizing climate change responses even in relatively simple Arctic food webs. Our results underscore the need for data reporting beyond overall trends in biomass or abundance and for including basic research on life history and ecology to achieve a more nuanced understanding of the sensitivity of Arctic and other arthropods to global changes.
PubMed ID
33431570 View in PubMed
Less detail

Status and trends of terrestrial arthropod abundance and diversity in the North Atlantic region of the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298876
Source
Ambio. 2019 Mar 16; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-16-2019
Author
Mark A K Gillespie
Matthias Alfredsson
Isabel C Barrio
Joseph J Bowden
Peter Convey
Lauren E Culler
Stephen J Coulson
Paul Henning Krogh
Amanda M Koltz
Seppo Koponen
Sarah Loboda
Yuri Marusik
Jonas P Sandström
Derek S Sikes
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal Campus, 6851, Sogndal, Norway. markg@hvl.no.
Source
Ambio. 2019 Mar 16; :
Date
Mar-16-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP) provides an opportunity to improve our knowledge of Arctic arthropod diversity, but initial baseline studies are required to summarise the status and trends of planned target groups of species known as Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). We begin this process by collating available data for a relatively well-studied region in the Arctic, the North Atlantic region, summarising the diversity of key terrestrial arthropod FECs, and compiling trends for some representative species. We found the FEC classification system to be challenging to implement, but identified some key groups to target in the initial phases of the programme. Long-term data are scarce and exhibit high levels of spatial and temporal variability. Nevertheless, we found that a number of species and groups are in decline, mirroring patterns in other regions of the world. We emphasise that terrestrial arthropods require higher priority within future Arctic monitoring programmes.
PubMed ID
30879270 View in PubMed
Less detail

Status and trends of terrestrial arthropod abundance and diversity in the North Atlantic region of the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309613
Source
Ambio. 2020 Mar; 49(3):718-731
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2020
Author
Mark A K Gillespie
Matthias Alfredsson
Isabel C Barrio
Joseph J Bowden
Peter Convey
Lauren E Culler
Stephen J Coulson
Paul Henning Krogh
Amanda M Koltz
Seppo Koponen
Sarah Loboda
Yuri Marusik
Jonas P Sandström
Derek S Sikes
Toke T Høye
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal Campus, 6851, Sogndal, Norway. markg@hvl.no.
Source
Ambio. 2020 Mar; 49(3):718-731
Date
Mar-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Arthropods
Biodiversity
Ecosystem
Abstract
The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme (CBMP) provides an opportunity to improve our knowledge of Arctic arthropod diversity, but initial baseline studies are required to summarise the status and trends of planned target groups of species known as Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). We begin this process by collating available data for a relatively well-studied region in the Arctic, the North Atlantic region, summarising the diversity of key terrestrial arthropod FECs, and compiling trends for some representative species. We found the FEC classification system to be challenging to implement, but identified some key groups to target in the initial phases of the programme. Long-term data are scarce and exhibit high levels of spatial and temporal variability. Nevertheless, we found that a number of species and groups are in decline, mirroring patterns in other regions of the world. We emphasise that terrestrial arthropods require higher priority within future Arctic monitoring programmes.
PubMed ID
30879270 View in PubMed
Less detail

Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on belowground ecosystem function in Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294970
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-07-2018
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Aimée T Classen
Justin P Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130; akoltz@wustl.edu.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Date
08-07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biomass
Carbon Cycle
Food chain
Fungi - chemistry - physiology
Global warming
Insecta - physiology
Nitrogen - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Spiders - physiology
Tundra
Abstract
Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that warming alters the effects of wolf spiders, a dominant tundra predator, on belowground litter decomposition. Specifically, while high densities of wolf spiders result in faster litter decomposition under ambient temperatures, they result, instead, in slower decomposition under warming. Higher spider densities are also associated with elevated levels of available soil nitrogen, potentially benefiting plant production. Changes in decomposition rates under increased wolf spider densities are accompanied by trends toward fewer fungivorous Collembola under ambient temperatures and more Collembola under warming, suggesting that Collembola mediate the indirect effects of wolf spiders on decomposition. The unexpected reversal of wolf spider effects on Collembola and decomposition suggest that in some cases, warming does not simply alter the strength of top-down effects but, instead, induces a different trophic cascade altogether. Our results indicate that climate change-induced effects on predators can cascade through other trophic levels, alter critical ecosystem functions, and potentially lead to climate feedbacks with important global implications. Moreover, given the expected increase in wolf spider densities with climate change, our findings suggest that the observed cascading effects of this common predator on detrital processes could potentially buffer concurrent changes in decomposition rates.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30038011 View in PubMed
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11 records – page 1 of 2.