The aim of this part of the Umeå 85+ Study was to explore how indigenous women narrate their lives and their experience of being old as Sami women. Interviews with 9 old Sami women were analyzed using grounded theory. The categories identified were "reindeer as the basis of life," "longing for significant Sami values," "feeling valued as a Sami woman," and "changing for survival;" these evolved into the core category: "balancing within various discourses-the art of being old and living as a Sami woman." Knowing how to balance provided the ability to make use of available opportunities.
AIM: The aim was to analyse the construction of masculinities among men aged 85 and older. BACKGROUND: All societies have a gender order, constructed from multiple ideas of what is seen as feminine and masculine. As the group of men aged 85 and older is increasing in size and their demand for care will increase, we must recognize the importance of studying these men and various discourses of masculinities. DESIGN: Qualitative explorative. METHODS: Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse thematic narratives. Masculinity theories provided the point of departure for the analysis. RESULTS: The analysis coalesced into three masculinities. 'Being in the male centre', developed from subthemes as: taking pride in one's work and economic situation; being in the centre in relation to others; regarding women as sexual objects; and belonging to a select group. 'Striving to maintain the male facade' developed from subthemes as: emphasizing 'important' connections; having feelings of loss; striving to maintain old norms and rejecting the fact of being old. 'Being related' was formulated from subthemes as: feeling at home with domestic duties; being concerned; accepting one's own aging; and reflecting on life. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates the importance of being aware of the existence of multiple masculinities, in contrast to the generally unproblematic and unsubtle particular healthcare approaches which consider men as simply belonging to one masculinity. Relevance to clinical practice. Diverse masculinities probably affect encounters between men and healthcare providers and others who work with an older population and therefore our results are of importance in a caring context.
This study forms part of the Umeå 85+ Study, and the aim was to explore various gendered constructions of femininities among the oldest old women. Femininities are seen as various ways of shaping oneself as a woman in relation to the impact of historical, social, and cultural circumstances. Thematic narratives were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Through interpreting these narratives in the light of gender theories, we were able to discern four femininities: "being connected," "being an actor," "living in the shadow of others," and "being alienated." The oldest old women displayed complex outlooks on femininities, and no femininity was interpreted as being in the center related to the other femininities. Further research is needed in order to disclose the complexity of femininities related to factors such as social class, ethnicity, and financial situation among the oldest old, and to acquire a greater knowledge of various femininities.
There is lack of research on old indigenous women's experiences. The aim of this study was to explore how old women narrate their experiences of wellbeing and lack of wellbeing using the salutogenetic concept of resilience. Interviews from nine old Sami women were analysed according to grounded theory with the following themes identified: contributing to resilience and wellbeing built up from the categories feeling connected, feeling independent and creating meaning; and contributing to lack of lack of resilience and wellbeing built up from the category experiencing lack of connectedness. The old Sami women's narratives showed that they were to a high extent resilient and experienced wellbeing. They felt both connected and independent and they were able to create meaning of being an old Sami woman. Having access to economic and cultural capital were for the old Sami women valuable for experiencing resilience. Lack of resilience was expressed as experiences of discrimination, lack of connectedness and living on the border of the dominant society. Analysis of the Sami women's narratives can give wider perspectives on women's health and deepen the perspectives on human resilience and increase the understanding of minority groups in a multicultural world.