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Patchy field sampling biases understanding of climate change impacts across the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300490
Source
Nat Ecol Evol. 2018 09; 2(9):1443-1448
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-2018
Author
Daniel B Metcalfe
Thirze D G Hermans
Jenny Ahlstrand
Michael Becker
Martin Berggren
Robert G Björk
Mats P Björkman
Daan Blok
Nitin Chaudhary
Chelsea Chisholm
Aimée T Classen
Niles J Hasselquist
Micael Jonsson
Jeppe A Kristensen
Bright B Kumordzi
Hanna Lee
Jordan R Mayor
Janet Prevéy
Karolina Pantazatou
Johannes Rousk
Ryan A Sponseller
Maja K Sundqvist
Jing Tang
Johan Uddling
Göran Wallin
Wenxin Zhang
Anders Ahlström
David E Tenenbaum
Abdulhakim M Abdi
Author Affiliation
Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. dbmetcalfe@gmail.com.
Source
Nat Ecol Evol. 2018 09; 2(9):1443-1448
Date
09-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecosystem
Selection Bias
Spatial Analysis
Abstract
Effective societal responses to rapid climate change in the Arctic rely on an accurate representation of region-specific ecosystem properties and processes. However, this is limited by the scarcity and patchy distribution of field measurements. Here, we use a comprehensive, geo-referenced database of primary field measurements in 1,840 published studies across the Arctic to identify statistically significant spatial biases in field sampling and study citation across this globally important region. We find that 31% of all study citations are derived from sites located within 50?km of just two research sites: Toolik Lake in the USA and Abisko in Sweden. Furthermore, relatively colder, more rapidly warming and sparsely vegetated sites are under-sampled and under-recognized in terms of citations, particularly among microbiology-related studies. The poorly sampled and cited areas, mainly in the Canadian high-Arctic archipelago and the Arctic coastline of Russia, constitute a large fraction of the Arctic ice-free land area. Our results suggest that the current pattern of sampling and citation may bias the scientific consensuses that underpin attempts to accurately predict and effectively mitigate climate change in the region. Further work is required to increase both the quality and quantity of sampling, and incorporate existing literature from poorly cited areas to generate a more representative picture of Arctic climate change and its environmental impacts.
PubMed ID
30013133 View in PubMed
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Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on belowground ecosystem function in Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294970
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
08-07-2018
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Aimée T Classen
Justin P Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130; akoltz@wustl.edu.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 08 07; 115(32):E7541-E7549
Date
08-07-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Biomass
Carbon Cycle
Food chain
Fungi - chemistry - physiology
Global warming
Insecta - physiology
Nitrogen - chemistry
Soil - chemistry
Soil Microbiology
Spiders - physiology
Tundra
Abstract
Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that warming alters the effects of wolf spiders, a dominant tundra predator, on belowground litter decomposition. Specifically, while high densities of wolf spiders result in faster litter decomposition under ambient temperatures, they result, instead, in slower decomposition under warming. Higher spider densities are also associated with elevated levels of available soil nitrogen, potentially benefiting plant production. Changes in decomposition rates under increased wolf spider densities are accompanied by trends toward fewer fungivorous Collembola under ambient temperatures and more Collembola under warming, suggesting that Collembola mediate the indirect effects of wolf spiders on decomposition. The unexpected reversal of wolf spider effects on Collembola and decomposition suggest that in some cases, warming does not simply alter the strength of top-down effects but, instead, induces a different trophic cascade altogether. Our results indicate that climate change-induced effects on predators can cascade through other trophic levels, alter critical ecosystem functions, and potentially lead to climate feedbacks with important global implications. Moreover, given the expected increase in wolf spider densities with climate change, our findings suggest that the observed cascading effects of this common predator on detrital processes could potentially buffer concurrent changes in decomposition rates.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30038011 View in PubMed
Less detail

Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on belowground ecosystem function in Arctic tundra.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293406
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jul 23; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-23-2018
Author
Amanda M Koltz
Aimée T Classen
Justin P Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130; akoltz@wustl.edu.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jul 23; :
Date
Jul-23-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that warming alters the effects of wolf spiders, a dominant tundra predator, on belowground litter decomposition. Specifically, while high densities of wolf spiders result in faster litter decomposition under ambient temperatures, they result, instead, in slower decomposition under warming. Higher spider densities are also associated with elevated levels of available soil nitrogen, potentially benefiting plant production. Changes in decomposition rates under increased wolf spider densities are accompanied by trends toward fewer fungivorous Collembola under ambient temperatures and more Collembola under warming, suggesting that Collembola mediate the indirect effects of wolf spiders on decomposition. The unexpected reversal of wolf spider effects on Collembola and decomposition suggest that in some cases, warming does not simply alter the strength of top-down effects but, instead, induces a different trophic cascade altogether. Our results indicate that climate change-induced effects on predators can cascade through other trophic levels, alter critical ecosystem functions, and potentially lead to climate feedbacks with important global implications. Moreover, given the expected increase in wolf spider densities with climate change, our findings suggest that the observed cascading effects of this common predator on detrital processes could potentially buffer concurrent changes in decomposition rates.
PubMed ID
30038011 View in PubMed
Less detail