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25-hydroxyvitamin D accumulation during summer in elderly women at latitude 60 degrees N.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149948
Source
J Intern Med. 2009 Nov;266(5):476-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Ann Burgaz
A. Akesson
K. Michaëlsson
A. Wolk
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. ann.burgaz@ki.se
Source
J Intern Med. 2009 Nov;266(5):476-83
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Seasons
Sunlight
Sweden
Ultraviolet Rays
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
During half of the year, cutaneous synthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is not detectable at northern latitudes, leaving the population dependent on other sources for optimal vitamin D status. During April to September, 25(OH)D status may be improved by solar exposure. In this study, we measured seasonal differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations and identified the major predictors of summer 25(OH)D concentrations.
We assessed serum 25(OH)D concentrations during both winter and summer amongst 100 women, aged 61-83 years, randomly sampled from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Participants completed two detailed questionnaires covering diet, use of dietary supplements and sun-related behaviour, the first in January through March and a second time in August through September.
The mean seasonal increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 38% from mean 72 +/- 23 nmol L(-1) during winter to 99 +/- 29 nmol L(-1) in summer. High summer 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with higher winter concentrations, preference of staying in sun instead of shade, having a nonsensitive skin type and normal body mass index. Based on multiple linear regression modelling, preferring sun, having nonsensitive skin type and normal weight as compared with preferring shade, having sensitive skin type and being obese, was associated with a 64 nmol L(-1) higher 25(OH)D concentrations during summer.
Women with high winter 25(OH)D serum concentrations, with preference of staying in the sun instead of shade during summer, a skin type allowing for longer sun exposure and a normal weight had the highest summer 25(OH)D concentrations.
PubMed ID
19570054 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10930
Source
JAMA. 1998 Feb 18;279(7):535-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-18-1998
Author
S A Smith-Warner
D. Spiegelman
S S Yaun
P A van den Brandt
A R Folsom
R A Goldbohm
S. Graham
L. Holmberg
G R Howe
J R Marshall
A B Miller
J D Potter
F E Speizer
W C Willett
A. Wolk
D J Hunter
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass 02115, USA.
Source
JAMA. 1998 Feb 18;279(7):535-40
Date
Feb-18-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Diet
Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Female
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Linear Models
Menarche
Menopause
Multivariate Analysis
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of invasive breast cancer associated with total and beverage-specific alcohol consumption and to evaluate whether dietary and nondietary factors modify the association. DATA SOURCES: We included in these analyses 6 prospective studies that had at least 200 incident breast cancer cases, assessed long-term intake of food and nutrients, and used a validated diet assessment instrument. The studies were conducted in Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Alcohol intake was estimated by food frequency questionnaires in each study. The studies included a total of 322647 women evaluated for up to 11 years, including 4335 participants with a diagnosis of incident invasive breast cancer. DATA EXTRACTION: Pooled analysis of primary data using analyses consistent with each study's original design and the random-effects model for the overall pooled analyses. DATA SYNTHESIS: For alcohol intakes less than 60 g/d (reported by >99% of participants), risk increased linearly with increasing intake; the pooled multivariate relative risk for an increment of 10 g/d of alcohol (about 0.75-1 drink) was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.13; P for heterogeneity among studies, .71). The multivariate-adjusted relative risk for total alcohol intakes of 30 to less than 60 g/d (about 2-5 drinks) vs nondrinkers was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.18-1.69). Limited data suggested that alcohol intakes of at least 60 g/d were not associated with further increased risk. The specific type of alcoholic beverage did not strongly influence risk estimates. The association between alcohol intake and breast cancer was not modified by other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is associated with a linear increase in breast cancer incidence in women over the range of consumption reported by most women. Among women who consume alcohol regularly, reducing alcohol consumption is a potential means to reduce breast cancer risk.
Notes
Comment In: JAMA. 1998 Oct 7;280(13):1138-99777807
PubMed ID
9480365 View in PubMed
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Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286102
Source
J Intern Med. 2017 Oct;282(4):332-339
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
S C Larsson
A. Wolk
M. Bäck
Source
J Intern Med. 2017 Oct;282(4):332-339
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Aortic Valve Stenosis - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS).
To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts.
This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression.
Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of =30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers.
This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible.
PubMed ID
28494128 View in PubMed
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Alcoholic beverages and risk of renal cell cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162295
Source
Br J Cancer. 2007 Aug 6;97(3):429-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-6-2007
Author
J P Greving
J E Lee
A. Wolk
C. Lukkien
P. Lindblad
A. Bergström
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Br J Cancer. 2007 Aug 6;97(3):429-33
Date
Aug-6-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Beverages
Carcinoma, Renal Cell - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Kidney Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Using a mailed questionnaire, we investigated the risk of renal cell cancer in relation to different types of alcoholic beverages, and to total ethanol in a large population-based case-control study among Swedish adults, including 855 cases and 1204 controls. Compared to non-drinkers, a total ethanol intake of >620 g month(-1) was significantly related to a decreased risk of renal cell cancer (odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9; P-value for trend=0.03). The risk decreased 30-40% with drinking more than two glasses per week of red wine (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), white wine (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.0), or strong beer (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-1.0); there was a clear linear trend of decreasing risk with increasing consumption of these beverages (P-values for trends
Notes
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PubMed ID
17653076 View in PubMed
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Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk: effect of exposure from 15 years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11320
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995 Dec;4(8):843-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1995
Author
L. Holmberg
J A Baron
T. Byers
A. Wolk
E M Ohlander
M. Zack
H O Adami
Author Affiliation
Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Uppsala University, University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995 Dec;4(8):843-7
Date
Dec-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Risk
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Research regarding the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk has suggested an association between the two, although the data are inconsistent regarding dose effects and susceptible populations. To clarify these issues, we investigated the association of breast cancer risk with alcohol intake at various ages in a population-based case-control study nested within a screening cohort in Sweden. Subjects were women 40-75 years old who participated in a screening program in central Sweden. Information about personal characteristics, diet, and alcohol intake was obtained by a questionnaire sent out at the invitation to the screening interview and at a supplementary interview conducted among a sample of women who did and did not develop breast cancer. Alcohol intake did not affect breast cancer risk among women under 50 years old. However, among those over 50 years of age, ever-drinking conferred a relative risk of 1.8 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-2.6). Current and former drinkers had similar increases in risk. No particular latent period of alcohol effect was identified, but drinking later in life to have a bigger effect than did drinking earlier in life.
PubMed ID
8634655 View in PubMed
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Alcohol intake and mortality among women with invasive breast cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128247
Source
Br J Cancer. 2012 Jan 31;106(3):592-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-31-2012
Author
H R Harris
L. Bergkvist
A. Wolk
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute for Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. holly.harris@ki.se
Source
Br J Cancer. 2012 Jan 31;106(3):592-5
Date
Jan-31-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Breast Neoplasms - etiology - mortality - pathology
Cohort Studies
Diet Surveys
Female
Humans
Mammography
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Invasiveness
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Survival Analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Alcohol intake has consistently been associated with increased breast cancer incidence in epidemiological studies. However, the relation between alcohol and survival after breast cancer diagnosis is less clear.
We investigated whether alcohol intake was associated with survival among 3146 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Alcohol consumption was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
From 1987 to 2008 there were 385 breast cancer-specific deaths and 860 total deaths. No significant association was observed between alcohol intake and breast cancer-specific survival. Women who consumed 10 g per day (corresponding to approximately 0.75 to 1 drinks) or more of alcohol had an adjusted HR (95% CI) of breast cancer-specific death of 1.36 (0.82-2.26;p(trend)=0.47) compared with non-drinkers. A significant inverse association was observed between alcohol and non-breast cancer deaths. Those who consumed 3.4-9.9 g per day of alcohol had a 33% lower risk of death compared with non-drinkers (95% CI 0.50-0.90;p(trend)=0.04).
Our findings suggest that alcohol intake up to approximately one small drink per day does not negatively impact breast cancer-specific survival and a half drink per day is associated with a decreased risk of mortality from other causes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22215064 View in PubMed
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Alcoholism and cancer risk: a population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24357
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1992 Sep;3(5):419-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1992
Author
H O Adami
J K McLaughlin
A W Hsing
A. Wolk
A. Ekbom
L. Holmberg
I. Persson
Author Affiliation
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1992 Sep;3(5):419-25
Date
Sep-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Laryngeal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Mouth Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The incidence of cancer was studied in a population-based cohort of 9,353 individuals (8,340 men and 1,013 women) with a discharge diagnosis of alcoholism in 1965-83, followed up for 19 years (mean 7.7). After exclusion of cancers in the first year of follow-up, 491 cancers were observed cf 343.2 expected through 1984 (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.4, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-1.6). A similar excess risk of cancer was seen among men (SIR = 1.4, CI = 1.3-1.6) and among women (SIR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.0). We observed the established associations with cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, CI = 2.9-5.7), esophagus (SIR = 6.8, CI = 4.5-9.9), larynx (SIR = 3.3, CI = 1.7-6.0), and lung (SIR = 2.1, CI = 1.7-2.6), although confounding by smoking likely increased these risk estimates. While there was evidence of increased risk for pancreatic cancer (SIR = 1.5, CI = 0.9-2.3), alcoholism did not elevate the incidence of cancer of the stomach (SIR = 0.9, CI = 6-1.4), large bowel (SIR = 1.1, CI = 0.8-1.5), prostate (SIR = 1.0, CI = 0.8-1.3), urinary bladder (SIR = 1.0, CI = 0.6-1.5), or of malignant melanoma (SIR = 0.9, CI = 0.3-1.9). Among women, the number of breast cancers observed was close to expected (SIR = 1.2, CI = 0.6-2.2), although a significant excess number of cervical cancers occurred (SIR = 4.2, CI = 1.5-9.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
1525322 View in PubMed
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Antioxidant intake and allergic disease in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120524
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Oct;42(10):1491-500
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
H. Rosenlund
J. Magnusson
I. Kull
N. Håkansson
A. Wolk
G. Pershagen
M. Wickman
A. Bergström
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Helen.Rosenlund@ki.se
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Oct;42(10):1491-500
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antioxidants - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Child
Cohort Studies
Diet
Female
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Magnesium - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Male
Questionnaires
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
alpha-Tocopherol - administration & dosage - pharmacology
beta Carotene - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Abstract
Antioxidant intake may reduce the risk of allergic disease by protecting against oxidative tissue damage. Major sources of antioxidants in the Western world are fruits, vegetables (vitamin C, ß-carotene, a-tocopherol), meat and milk (selenium, magnesium, zinc). Children may exclude or eat less of some fruits and vegetables due to cross-reactivity between pollen and these foods, complicating assessment of causal relationships.
To investigate the association between dietary antioxidant intake and allergic disease, taking potential reverse causation into account.
Data on 2442 8-year-old children from the Swedish birth cohort study BAMSE were analysed. Children with completed parental questionnaires on exposures and health, including a food-frequency questionnaire and who provided a blood sample were included. Associations between antioxidant intake during the past year and current allergic disease were analysed using logistic regression.
An inverse association was observed between intake of ß-carotene and rhinitis (OR(adj), highest vs. lowest quartile, 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93). Magnesium intake was inversely related to asthma (OR(adj), 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-1.00) and atopic sensitisation (OR(adj), 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-1.00). Following exclusion of children who avoided certain fruits, vegetables or milk due to allergic symptoms (n = 285), the inverse association remained between magnesium intake and asthma (OR(adj), 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.98), whereas all other associations became non-significant.
Diet modifications due to allergy may affect the antioxidant intake and needs to be considered when investigating the relationship between diet and allergic disease. Magnesium intake seems to have a protective effect on childhood asthma.
Notes
Comment In: Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Oct;42(10):1420-222994339
PubMed ID
22994346 View in PubMed
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Antioxidants and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20316
Source
Int J Cancer. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):750-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2000
Author
P. Terry
J. Lagergren
W. Ye
O. Nyrén
A. Wolk
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. paul.terry@mep.ki.se
Source
Int J Cancer. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):750-4
Date
Sep-1-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - prevention & control
Aged
Antioxidants - administration & dosage
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cardia - drug effects - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Dietary Supplements
Drug Synergism
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Gastroesophageal Reflux - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Oxidative Stress - drug effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Vitamin E - administration & dosage
beta Carotene - administration & dosage
Abstract
Antioxidant vitamins have attracted considerable attention in previous studies of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, but dietary studies of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia remain sparse. Treating these tumors as distinct diseases, we studied intakes of vitamin C, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol in a nationwide population-based case-control study in Sweden, with 185, 165, and 258 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, respectively, and 815 controls. Subjects with a high parallel intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol showed a 40-50% decreased risk of both histological types of esophageal cancer compared with subjects with a low parallel intake. Antioxidant intake was not associated with the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Separately, vitamin C and beta-carotene reduced the risk of esophageal cancers more than alpha-tocopherol. We found that antioxidant intake is associated with similar risk reductions for both main histological types of esophageal cancer. Our findings indicate that antioxidants do not explain the diverging incidence rates of the 2 histological types of esophageal cancer. Moreover, our data suggest that inverse associations with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma may be stronger among subjects under presumed higher oxidative stress due to smoking or gastroesophageal reflux, respectively. Our results may be relevant for the implementation of focused, cost-effective preventive measures.
PubMed ID
10925371 View in PubMed
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Beta-carotene intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21293
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Jan;10(1):49-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
A O Jumaan
L. Holmberg
M. Zack
A H Mokdad
E M Ohlander
A. Wolk
T. Byers
Author Affiliation
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Program, Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, Child Vaccine--Preventable Diseases Branch, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, USA.
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Jan;10(1):49-53
Date
Jan-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Postmenopause
Risk
Sweden - epidemiology
beta Carotene
Abstract
We assessed the relation between beta-carotene consumption at various times in life and breast cancer risk by conducting a case-control study nested within a population-based cohort of women screened for breast cancer in Sweden. We conducted a telephone interview with 273 incident breast cancer cases and 371 controls about their diet at various ages throughout their lifetime. Controls were frequency matched to cases on age, month and year of mammography, and county of residence. We used unconditional logistic regression to measure the association between beta-carotene intake and breast cancer risk while adjusting for total energy intake, recency of intake, and the matching variables. Women were at lower risk with increasing levels of reported intake of beta-carotene. This pattern of association between breast cancer and beta-carotene intake was similar at various times before screening. These findings indicate that although diets high in beta-carotene may be associated with lower breast cancer risk, there does not seem to be evidence of a critical time period during which such diets are more relevant.
PubMed ID
9888279 View in PubMed
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90 records – page 1 of 9.