OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of added fats and oils across the European centres and countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: 24-Hour dietary recalls were collected by means of standardised computer-guided interviews in 27 redefined EPIC centres across 10 European countries. SUBJECTS: From an initial number of 36 900 subjects, single dietary recalls from 22 924 women and 13 031 men in the age range of 35-74 years were included. RESULTS: Mean daily intake of added fats and oils varied between 16.2 g (Varese, Italy) and 41.1 g (MalmÃ¶, Sweden) in women and between 24.7 g (Ragusa, Italy) and 66.0 g (Potsdam, Germany) in men. Total mean lipid intake by consumption of added fats and oils, including those used for sauce preparation, ranged between 18.3 (Norway) and 37.2 g day-1 (Greece) in women and 28.4 (Heidelberg, Germany) and 51.2 g day-1 (Greece) in men. The Mediterranean EPIC centres with high olive oil consumption combined with low animal fat intake contrasted with the central and northern European centres where fewer vegetable oils, more animal fats and a high proportion of margarine were consumed. The consumption of added fats and oils of animal origin was highest in the German EPIC centres, followed by the French. The contribution of added fats and oils to total energy intake ranged from 8% in Norway to 22% in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate a high variation in dietary intake of added fats and oils in EPIC, providing a good opportunity to elucidate the role of dietary fats in cancer aetiology.
OBJECTIVE: To derive estimates of age-gender specific food availability, based on data collected at household level. DESIGN: Two alternative modelling approaches are described leading to linear and non-linear optimisation, respectively. The idea of penalised least squares is used for estimation of model parameters. The effect of household characteristics can be incorporated into both modelling approaches. SETTING: Household budget survey data from four European countries (Belgium, Greece, Norway and the United Kingdom), circa 1990.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodology applied in order to render comparable, at the level of the dietary information collected, the household budget survey (HBS) and individual nutrition survey (INS) data from four European countries (Belgium, Greece, Norway and the United Kingdom). SETTING: In Belgium, data from the HBS of 1987-88 were compared with data from the Belgian Interuniversity Research on Nutrition and Health collected from 1980 to 1985. In Greece, data from the HBS undertaken in 1993-94 in the greater Athens area were compared with data collected around 1994 in the same region, in the context of the Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition study. In Norway, data from the HBS carried out in 1992, 1993 and 1994 were compared with the NORKOST study conducted in 1993-94. In the United Kingdom, data from four HBSs carried out in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 were compared with the National Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British adults conducted in 1987-88. DESIGN: INS-generated data were converted into 'HBS-like' estimates with the application of yield factors for weight changes during cooking, recipe-based calculations and edible proportion coefficients taking into account weight changes during the food preparation. The 'HBS-like' estimates thus obtained were compared with the original HBS values, after applying an adjustment factor for food spoiled or given to pets. CONCLUSION: The methodological considerations overviewed in the present paper indicate that a number of issues need to be taken into account before a proper comparison of the dietary data collected through surveys implemented with varied methodologies is carried out.
OBJECTIVE: To compare individualised household budget survey (HBS) data with food consumption values derived from individual nutrition surveys (INSs). SETTING: Four European countries: Belgium, 1980-85 and 1987-88; Greece, 1993-94; Norway, 1992-94; and the United Kingdom, 1985-88. DESIGN: Household budget survey data were individualised with non-parametric models. Individual nutrition survey data were converted into 'HBS-like' estimates, with the application of recipe-based calculations and yield factors for weight changes during food preparation. To correct for over- and underreporting or recording in both surveys, quantities (in g day(-1)) of 14 principal food groups were expressed as fractions of total food quantity (in g day(-1)). For each food group, INS and HBS-derived mean values were calculated for 24 research units, jointly defined by country (four countries involved), gender (male, female) and age (younger, middle-aged and older). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated and correlation diagrams were drawn. CONCLUSION: The results of this preliminary analysis show that there is value in the nutritional information derived from HBSs. However, additional and more sophisticated work is required, in order to derive reliable point and interval estimates of individual food consumption based on HBS data.