High peak bone mass in early adulthood is an important protective factor against osteoporotic fractures in later life, but little is known about the effects of exercise on growing bone. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine at which state of maturity (Tanner stage), the areal bone mineral density (BMD) differences between the playing and nonplaying arms of junior tennis players become obvious, and to clarify in each developmental stage which training and background variables, if any, could explain the interindividual differences in bones' response to mechanical loading. Ninety-one 7- to 17-year-old female tennis players and 58 healthy female controls were measured. In each Tanner stage, differences in BMD in playing and nonplaying (dominant and nondominant) arms (proximal humerus, humeral shaft, and distal radius) and BMD of the lumbar spine and nondominant distal radius were compared between the controls and players. Within each Tanner stage of players, the associations between training and background variables and BMD differences were analyzed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients. In players, BMD differences between the playing and nonplaying arms were significant (P
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of 18 months of calisthenics and endurance training regimens on bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. Clinically healthy sedentary female volunteers (n = 105) aged 52-53 years were randomly assigned to a calisthenics (n = 36), endurance (n = 34), or control (n = 35) group. The calisthenics training (2.6 times per week on average, 50 minutes per session) consisted of rhythmic strength-endurance exercises by large muscle groups, and the endurance training (3.2 times per week, 50 minutes) consisted of walking, stair climbing, ergometer cycling, and jogging at a controlled heart rate zone corresponding to 55-75% of the individual maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the subjects. The control subjects performed a light stretching program once a week The BMD of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), right femoral neck, calcaneus, and distal radius was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0, 4, 8, 10, 14, and 18 months, and the maximal isometric strength during trunk extension and flexion, leg extension, and arm flexion and the VO2max by ergospirometry were evaluated at 0, 8, 10, and 18 months of intervention. The VO2max improved significantly (p = 0.021) in the endurance group. The linear trend of the femoral neck BMD in the endurance group, as determined by generalized linear models, was significantly different (p = 0.043) from that of the control group, the trend indicating a maintenance of the prestudy BMD. In the calisthenics group, the training effect was not significant. However, the distal radius BMD of the endurance group showed a significant negative trend (p = 0.006). These results suggest that multiexercise endurance training maintains the BMD the clinically important femoral neck of perimenopausal women. This form of endurance training proved also to be feasible for healthy perimenopausal women.
BACKGROUND: Proper balance seems to be a critical factor in terms of fall prevention among the elderly. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine factors that are associated with dynamic balance and health-related quality of life in home-dwelling elderly women. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-three healthy postmenopausal women (mean age: 72 years, height: 159 cm, weight: 72 kg) were examined. General health and physical activity were assessed by a questionnaire. Quality of life was measured using a health-related quality of life questionnaire (Rand 36-Item Health Survey 1.0). Dynamic balance (agility) was tested by a figure-of-eight running test. Static balance (postural sway) was tested on an unstable platform. Maximal isometric strength of the leg extensors was measured with a leg press dynamometer. Dynamic muscle strength of lower limbs was tested by measuring ground reaction forces with a force platform during common daily activities (sit-to-stand and step-on-a-stair tests). RESULTS: Concerning physical activity, 33% of the subjects reported brisk exercise (walking, Nordic walking, cross-country skiing, swimming and aquatic exercises) at least twice a week, and 22% some kind of brisk activity once a week in addition to lighter physical exercise. The remaining 45% did not exercise regularly and were classified as sedentary. The correlations of step-on-a-stair and sit-to-stand ground reaction forces, and leg extensor strength to dynamic balance were from -0.32 to -0.43 (the better the strength, the better the balance). In the regression analysis with backward elimination, step-on-a-stair and sit-to-stand ground reaction forces, and leg extensor strength, age, brisk physical activity, number of diseases and dynamic postural stability explained 42% of the variance in the dynamic balance. Similarly, dynamic balance (figure-of-eight running time), number of diseases and walking more than 3 km per day explained 14% of the variance in the quality of life score. Of these, figure-of-eight running time was the strongest predictor of the quality of life score, explaining 9% of its variance. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the concept that in home-dwelling elderly women good muscle strength in lower limbs is crucial for proper body balance and that dynamic balance is an independent predictor of a standardized quality of life estimate. The results provide important and useful information when planning meaningful contents for studies related to fall prevention and quality of life and interventions in elderly women.
This prospective study investigated the incidence and pattern of acute time-loss injuries in young female and male basketball players. Eight basketball teams (n=201; mean age 14.85±1.5) participated in the follow-up study (2011-2014). The coaches recorded player participation in practices and games on a team diary. A study physician contacted the teams once a week to check new injuries and interviewed the injured players. In total, 158 injuries occurred. The overall rate of injury (per 1000 hours) was 2.64 (95% CI 2.23-3.05). Injury rate was 34.47 (95% CI 26.59-42.34) in basketball games and 1.51 (95% CI 1.19-1.82) in team practices. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) between game and practice was 22.87 (95% CI 16.71-31.29). Seventy-eight percent of the injuries affected the lower limbs. The ankle (48%) and knee (15%) were the most commonly injured body sites. The majority of injuries involved joint or ligaments (67%). Twenty-three percent of the injuries were severe causing more than 28 days absence from sports. Number of recurrent injuries was high (28% of all injuries), and most of them were ankle sprains (35 of 44, 79%). No significant differences were found in injury rates between females and males during games (IRR 0.88, 0.55, to 1.40) and practices (IRR 1.06, 0.69, to 1.62). In conclusion, ankle and knee ligament injuries were the most common injuries in this study. Moreover, the rate of recurrent ankle sprains was alarming.
Although the incidence of severe local anaesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) has been declining, the risk of LAST still remains. There are no national treatment guidelines for LAST in Finland. We performed a national survey of the occurrence of LAST and its treatment in 2011-2013.
A structured electronic questionnaire was sent to the anaesthesia department chiefs of all Finnish public hospitals (n = 45) in spring 2014. We collected information about the occurrence and outcome of LASTs and existence of treatment protocols.
The questionnaire response rate was 100% covering approximately 95% of all regional anaesthesias managed by anaesthesiologists in Finnish hospitals. The total number of regional anaesthesias, excluding spinal anaesthesia, performed by anaesthesiologists was approximately 211,700 during the survey period. Fifteen cases of LAST were reported (0.7 : 10,000); all patients recovered without negative sequelae. Fourteen patients, in five of whom ultrasound guidance had been applied, developed central nervous system toxicity symptoms and only one cardiac symptoms. Lipid emulsion was given to this latter patient, and to four of the other 14. The relative risk (95% confidence intervals) for occurrence of LAST in non-academic hospital vs. university hospitals was 3.3 (1.0-10.3; P = 0.04). Treatment protocols for LAST included lipid emulsion in 47% of the departments.
The incidence of LAST in Finland is very low. Several departments have adopted lipid emulsion treatment for LAST despite lack of national recommendations and knowledge of the possible mechanism of action.
We examined 19 female Finnish national level squash players and 19 healthy female controls with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanner for the determination of the association between long-term unilateral activity and bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) of the upper extremities. In players, the BMDs and the BMCs were significantly higher in each bone site of the playing extremity. The side-to-side difference was largest in the proximal humerus (BMD 15.6%, BMC 17.8%) and smallest in the ulnar shaft (BMD 5.6%, BMC 7.3%). In sex-, age-, weight-, and height-matched controls, the side-to-side differences were significantly smaller, ranging from 1.6% to 4.1%. The number of training years and elbow flexion strength correlated positively with the relative BMD and BMC in the humerus of the playing arm (r = 0.632-0.685). The starting age of training in turn correlated negatively (r = -0.483 to -0.577) with these bone parameters. Significantly larger side-to-side differences (average 22%) were found in players who had started their career before or during menarche than in those who had begun the training 1 year or more after the menarche (9%). These findings suggest that the bones of the playing extremity clearly benefit from active squash playing. The benefit is largest in humerus and smaller in the bone of the forearm. The benefit of playing is stronger if the athlete has started the training at or before menarche than after it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Prospective studies investigating risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in youth athletes are limited. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the association between hip-pelvic kinematics and vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) during landing tasks and LBP in youth floorball and basketball players.
Three-hundred-and-eighty-three Finnish youth female and male floorball and basketball players (mean age 15.7?±?1.8) participated and were followed up on for 3?years. At the beginning of every study year the players were tested with a single-leg vertical drop jump (SLVDJ) and a vertical drop jump (VDJ). Hip-pelvic kinematics, measured as femur-pelvic angle (FPA) during SLVDJ landing, and peak vGRF and side-to-side asymmetry of vGRF during VDJ landing were the investigated risk factors. Individual exposure time and LBP resulting in time-loss were recorded during the follow-up. Cox's proportional hazard models with mixed effects and time-varying risk factors were used for analysis.
We found an increase in the risk for LBP in players with decreased FPA during SLVDJ landing. There was a small increase in risk for LBP with a one-degree decrease in right leg FPA during SLVDJ landing (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17, per one-degree decrease of FPA). Our results showed no significant relationship between risk for LBP and left leg FPA (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.11, per one-degree decrease of FPA), vGRF (HR 1.83, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.51) or vGRF side-to-side difference (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.65 to 2.27) during landing tasks.
Our results suggest that there is an association between hip-pelvic kinematics and future LBP. However, we did not find an association between LBP and vGRF. In the future, the association between hip-pelvic kinematics and LBP occurrence should be investigated further with cohort and intervention studies to verify the results from this investigation.
To assess the relationship between physical activity (PA) in work, transport, domestic, and leisure-time domains (with sitting time included) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among young adult men. The long version of IPAQ and SF-36 Health Survey were used to assess PA and HRQoL, respectively, in 1425 voluntary 20- to 40-year-old Finnish male participants. Participants were divided into tertiles (MET-h/week): Lowest tertile (100 MET-h/week). The IPAQ domain leisure-time PA predicted positively the Physical Component Summary (PCS) (ß = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.16) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) (ß = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.16) dimensions. Occupational PA predicted negative relationships in the PCS (ß = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.07), and sitting time predicted negative relationships in the MCS dimension (ß = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.07). In addition, a linear relationship was found between total PA level (including sitting time) and all of the IPAQ domains (