Out of a total of 158 pregnant women, 55 accepted participation in a dietary investigation for seven days with the object of assessing the consumption of milk by pregnant women and the significance of this for the intake of energy-providing dietary constituents and certain minerals. The diet in pregnant women contained more fat (43.2%) and the relationship between polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids (P/S-relationship) (0.25) was less than that recommended. The daily dietary content of fibre of 20.7 g/day was lower than the recommended intake. Calcium, phosphate and magnesium intakes constituted 180%, 131% and 64% respectively, of the recommended daily intake. The average intake of milk (buttermilk, skim milk, low fat milk and whole milk) was 482 g/day. The calcium content of the milk constituted, on an average, one third of the total calcium intake. The content of fat and saturated fatty acids in the milk constituted 7% and 10%, respectively, of the total intake. Four of the pregnant women had a daily calcium consumption of less than the recommended intake (1,000 mg/day). The same women had the lowest consumption of milk and energy in the group investigated. The results suggest that the dietary consumption is adequate to cover the calcium requirements. Extra calcium supplements should only be recommended for pregnant women with limited consumption of milk and other milk products. Pregnant women should be advised to take increased quantities of magnesium and to reduce the fat intake.
Over the past decade a number of studies on the incidence and preventability of adverse events in the health care have been published in the US, Australia and the UK. So far no similar study has been performed in Denmark. In order to determine whether foreign findings could be generalised to Danish health care, a pilot study on adverse events was carried out in Danish acute care hospitals.
Chart reviews were carried out on 1.097 acute care hospital admissions, sampled from the central Danish National Patient Register. The sample was truly proportional with no over-sampling of high-risks groups. Chart reviews was done in 17 different acute care hospitals, reviewing between 20 and 204 admissions per hospital. Adverse events was identified using a three-step procedure: 1) Nurse screening by 18 criteria identifying high-risk groups. 2) Independent reviews by pairs of consultants. 3) In case of disagreement between second step consultants, two additional independent reviews was performed by new consultants (internist and surgeon) followed by conference. All chart reviews were performed independent of medical specialty. All nurses and doctors were senior and experienced clinicians.
In 114 admissions 176 Adverse Events (AEs) were identified. The prevalence of admissions with adverse events were 9.0% of all admissions. Preventability of adverse events was found in 46 of admissions (40.4% of AEs). The adverse events caused on average a 7.0 days prolonged hospital stay. Most adverse events resulted in minor, transient disabilities. Permanent disability or death in relation to adverse event were recorded in 30 admissions.
The findings from the Danish Adverse Event Study are similar to the results found in Australia, United Kingdom and the United States. It is therefore recommended that further Danish research, is directed towards high-risk groups focussing on narratives and intervention and towards research in primary health care.
The first step for quality development is identification of the quality problem. This should be followed by a set up of criteria and standards and relevant data should be collected to perform quality assessment. The quality-level is evaluated and in cases with non-satisfying results, the problem(s) should be identified and the process repeated . Identification of the best results for continuous quality improvement and professional self-assessment is part of the process . Decentralization of the whole quality development process is an aim. The Ministry of Health is politically responsible for the process and the National Board of Health is responsible for the implementation of the process at the national level. To support continuous quality development, three bills were passed in the government in 1992: 1) Free choice of hospital for the patients; 2) Appropriate local and regional distribution of specialized functions, to ensure optimal treatment of rare and complicated diseases; 3) Coordinated planning and organization of the health services. The strategy for quality development illustrated by four cases. Four projects were identified to illustrate steps in the national strategy for quality development. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION. ESTEEM [2,3]: Using knowledge-based systems for interpretation of EMG (electromyography) in different laboratories disclosed great variations in clinical usability. The variations could be explained by different examination techniques, test planning protocols, and diagnostic criteria. It was concluded that the use of a EMG-knowledge based system disclosed great problems for standardization of procedures dependent on EMG measurements. QUALITY ASSESSMENT. Hip fracture quality project [unpublished data]: The assumption for the study was that early and active rehabilitation after hip fracture would promote the ability of the patients to cope with activities of daily living (ADL) and prevent development of complications. About 85% of the patients were expected to be able to go home on the 12th day, but this was the case for only 56% of the patients. It was concluded that the pre-set standard was not achieved and that the post-operative care was carried out in an ineffective way. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT. Laboratory quality project : Quality control assessment procedures have been implemented for years in hospital laboratories. The aim of the study was to evaluate the size of analytical bias between two local hospital laboratories using the same reference intervals. The results showed that only a few of the routine analyses meet the goals for acceptance of general reference intervals in a geographical area. The problems were reflected in the quality assessment results but, nevertheless, no action seems to have been taken to minimize the bias. It is concluded that interpretation of quality control data is a great problem. QUALITY MONITORING AND EVALUATION. National databases for health care quality : Principles for development, implementation, and use of national databases has been worked out by The National Board of Health. Clinical departments will get a tool to monitor and improve the daily working routines. National databases for clinical monitoring exist for vascular surgery, laparoscopic surgery, treatment of breast cancer, and surgery for hip fractures.
To explore if self-rated health (SRH) can predict differences in outcomes of patient education programmes among patients with type 2 diabetes over time.
This is an observational cohort study conducted among 83 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in patient education programmes in the Capital Region of Denmark.
Questionnaire data were collected by telephone interview at baseline and 2 weeks (77 participants, 93%) and 12 months (66, 80%) after the patient education ended. The seven-scale Health Education Impact Questionnaire (HeiQ) was the primary outcome. The independent variable was SRH, which was dichotomized into optimal or poor SRH. Changes over time were assessed using mean values and standard deviation (SD) at each time point and Cohen effect sizes. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the likelihood of having poor SRH for each baseline sociodemographic and health-related variable.
Twelve months after patient education programmes, 60 (72%) patients with optimal SRH at baseline demonstrated increased self-management skills, overall acceptance of chronic illness, positive social interaction with others, and improved emotional well-being. Participants with poor SRH (23, 28%) reported no improvements over time. Not being married (odds ratio [OR] 7.79, P?
Transferability of discriminant functions is potentially useful both from an economical point of view and because, in general, medical knowledge, in this case discriminant functions, should be transferable. In the present study we have evaluated the transferability of discriminant functions, estimated from routine laboratory analysis, age and sex in two consecutively recorded populations with hypercalcemia including 162 and 257 patients with hypercalcemia. Discriminant functions were developed for each sex to distinguish between hypercalcemia associated with malignancy and hypercalcemia associated with other medical diseases. The total diagnostic accuracy in Herlev was 82 and 78%, in women and men, and increased to 87 and 86% in both sexes considering cases classified with posterior probability levels of 60%. In Hvidovre the total diagnostic accuracy was 81 and 84% in women and men, and increased to 83 and 89% at posterior probability levels higher than 60%. Transfer of the discrimination functions between the hospitals was followed by a decrease in diagnostic accuracy of 6-16%. At a posterior probability of 60% the diagnostic accuracies were 79% or more in the receiving hospital, in both sexes, except for men in Hvidovre. In relation to these results the concept of genuine and non-genuine transfer factors is introduced and discussed.