The aim of this study was to describe the ability for self-care among home dwelling elderly in the community in a health district in western Sweden. Two self-report instruments plus a number of self-care related questions were distributed by mail to an age stratified random sample and finally completed by a total of 125 subjects. Bivariate and multivariate statistical methods were used in the analyses. The results showed that self-care ability and self-care agency decreased for respondents 75+ years of age. Self-care ability was predicted by three productive means for self-care and four risk factors.
Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) both impair quality of life, but the quality-of-life impact of comorbid asthma and CRS is poorly known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CRS and other relevant factors on quality of life in asthmatic subjects.
This Swedish cohort (age 17-76 years) consists of 605 well-characterized asthmatics with and without CRS, 110 individuals with CRS only, and 226 controls and is part of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2) LEN) survey. The Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (mAQLQ), the Euro Quality of Life (EQ-5D) health questionnaire, spirometry, skin prick test (SPT), exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), smell test, and peak nasal inspiratory flow were used.
Subjects having both asthma and CRS have lower mAQLQ scores in all domains (P 30 kg/m2 (P = 0.04), high age (P = 0.03), and a negative SPT (P = 0.04).
Comorbid CRS was a significant and independent negative predictor of quality of life in asthmatics. Other negative factors were lower lung function, current smoking, obesity, advanced age, and having nonatopic asthma.
A better understanding of why medication errors (MEs) occur will mean that we can work proactively to minimise them. This study developed a proactive tool to identify general failure types (GFTs) in the process of managing cytotoxic drugs in healthcare. The tool is based on Reason's Tripod Delta tool. The GFTs and active failures were identified in 60 cases of MEs reported to the Swedish national authorities. The most frequently encountered GFTs were defences, procedures, organisation and design. Working conditions were often the common denominator underlying the MEs. Among the active failures identified, a majority were classified as slips, one-third as mistakes, and for a few no active failure or error could be determined. It was found that the tool facilitated the qualitative understanding of how the organisational weaknesses and local characteristics influence the risks. It is recommended that the tool be used regularly. We propose further development of the GFT tool. We also propose a tool to be further developed into a proactive self-evaluation tool that would work as a complement to already incident reporting and event and risk analyses.
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To explore the simultaneous impact of parental adiposity and education level on infant growth from birth to 12 months, adjusting for known early-life risk factors for subsequent childhood obesity.
Baseline data for 197 one-year-old children and their parents, participating in a longitudinal obesity intervention, were used. Obesity risk groups, high/low, were defined based on parental body mass index (n = 144/53) and parental education (n = 57/139). Observational data on infant growth between 0 and 12 months were collected. The children's relative weight (body mass index standard deviation score) at 3, 6 and 12 months and rapid weight gain 0-6 months were analysed in regression models, with obesity risk as primary exposure variables, adjusting for gestational weight gain, birth weight, short exclusive breastfeeding and maternal smoking.
Relative weight at 3, 6 and 12 months was associated with low parental education but not with parental adiposity. No significant associations were observed with rapid weight gain. None of the early-life factors could explain the association with parental education.
Low parental education level is independently associated with infant growth, whereas parental obesity does not contribute to a higher weight or to rapid weight gain during the first year.
Laparoscopic hernioplasty has been criticized because of its technical complexity and increased costs. Disposable dissection balloons can be used to gain the initial working space in totally extraperitoneal endoscopic (TEP) hernioplasty, but this increases its cost. Forty-four men with bilateral, primary or recurrent inguinal hernias were randomized to undergo TEP with or without dissection balloon. There were two conversions to transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty, or open herniorrhaphy, in the group with balloon and four in the group without balloon. There was no difference in the postoperative morbidity or operation time between the two groups, and there were no major complications in either group. The recurrence rate was 4.3% in the group with the balloon and 7.1% in the group without the balloon. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Although our study population is too small to detect small differences between the groups, it seems that the use of a dissection balloon is not beneficial in a bilateral TEP.
Periostin has been suggested as a novel, phenotype-specific biomarker for asthma driven by type 2 inflammation. However, large studies examining relationships between circulating periostin and patient characteristics are lacking and the suitability of periostin as a biomarker in asthma remains unclear.
To examine circulating periostin in healthy controls and subjects with asthma from the general population with different severity and treatment profiles, both with and without chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), in relation to other biomarkers and clinical characteristics.
Serum periostin was examined by ELISA in 1100 subjects aged 17-76 from the Swedish Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) study, which included 463 asthmatics with/without chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), 98 individuals with CRS only, and 206 healthy controls. Clinical tests included measurement of lung function, Fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO), IgE, urinary eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (U-EDN), and serum eosinophil cationic protein (S-ECP), as well as completion of questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms, medication, and quality of life.
Although median periostin values showed no differences when comparing disease groups with healthy controls, multiple regression analyses revealed that periostin was positively associated with higher FeNO, U-EDN, and total IgE. In patients with asthma, an inverse relationship with lung function was also observed. Current smoking was associated with decreased periostin levels, whereas increased age and lower body mass index (BMI) related to higher periostin levels in subjects both with and without asthma.
We confirm associations between periostin and markers of type 2 inflammation, as well as lung function, and identify novel constitutional factors of importance to the use of periostin as a phenotype-specific biomarker in asthma.