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Amplification of DNA by the polymerase chain reaction for the efficient diagnosis of pertussis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36891
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(3):339-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
P. Olcén
A. Bäckman
B. Johansson
E. Esbjörner
E. Törnqvist
J. Bygraves
W L McPheat
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Orebro Medical Center Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1992;24(3):339-45
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Base Sequence
Bordetella pertussis - genetics - isolation & purification
Child
Child, Preschool
DNA, Bacterial - genetics
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Molecular Sequence Data
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Whooping Cough - diagnosis
Abstract
The standard diagnostic methods for pertussis have several shortcomings. With the increased knowledge of the Bordetella pertussis genome a specific and conserved DNA sequence, present in about 70-80 copies in each genome, was selected for amplification with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in order to evaluate its diagnostic potential in children with suspected pertussis. The 400 basepair DNA sequence chosen was present and amplified in all 112 B. pertussis strains and in no other bacterial species examined. The specificity of the amplified material was documented by restriction enzyme cleavage. In nasopharyngeal aspirates a B. pertussis specific PCR product was visualized in 19/25 culture positive and in 5/50 culture negative children. In conclusion the present PCR assay for B. pertussis can be clinically useful and permit a specific diagnosis within 1 day after sampling. Further studies are requested to document its sensitivity, specificity and predictive value for positive and negative results.
PubMed ID
1509238 View in PubMed
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Assay of the biologic activity of allergen skin test preparations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240763
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984 Mar;73(3):324-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1984
Author
F. Björkstén
T. Haahtela
A. Backman
I. Suoniemi
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984 Mar;73(3):324-31
Date
Mar-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Allergens - administration & dosage - standards
Child
Child, Preschool
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
Finland
Histamine - diagnostic use
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - diagnosis
Male
Middle Aged
Reference Values
Skin Tests - methods - standards
Abstract
We studied the biologic activity of allergen preparations using a method involving skin prick tests in humans and the use of HEP (histamine equivalent prick) units. Results were found to be dependent on the population groups used in assays. If populations are not carefully standardized, results may vary by 1 power of 10. Accuracy can also be improved by the use of suitable allergen standard reference preparations, but such were not available to us. Confidence ranges for the biologic activities were relatively wide and varied with the allergen preparation and the population group. Typically, the 95% confidence range included values from one-fifth to five times the estimated HEP value when the number of subjects in the assay was 30 to 50 persons. When the preparations representing the same source material (e.g., timothy pollen) were assayed simultaneously in one population group of this size, a twofold or larger difference in HEP values generally proved significant. An examination of 43 commercial products showed that allergen preparations with biologic activities declared in HEP units had a more uniform biologic activity than those assayed with traditional methods and units (PNU/ml or weight/volume).
PubMed ID
6699313 View in PubMed
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Birch pollen allergy in children. Role of milk feeding during the first birch season of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature243054
Source
Allergy. 1982 Jul;37(5):345-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1982
Author
U M Saarinen
M. Kajosaari
A. Backman
Source
Allergy. 1982 Jul;37(5):345-50
Date
Jul-1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Breast Feeding
Cattle
Child, Preschool
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology - immunology
Female
Finland
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Milk - immunology
Poaceae - immunology
Pollen - immunology
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - immunology
Seasons
Trees
Weaning
Abstract
The effect of exclusive breast-feeding throughout the first birch pollen season of life was examined in 59 children compared to 67 children on cow milk formula and to 27 children weaned to cow milk-based formula during their first birch season. The infants were about 3 months of age in their first birch season, and allergy to birch pollen was evaluated at 5 years of age by history and prick and provocation tests. Breast-feeding throughout the first birch season did not prevent birch pollen allergy; a similar birch allergy prevalence of about 10% was found in children initially fed on human or cow milk. Instead, weaning to cow milk-based formula during the first birch season seemed to protect from subsequent development of birch pollen allergy. Analogous results were obtained regarding allergy to grass pollen. This unexpected finding may be related to the immunologic stress on the young infant provided by introduction of cow milk proteins at an early age.
PubMed ID
7125152 View in PubMed
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Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 genotypes among sexually transmitted disease patients in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192697
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Nov;39(11):3915-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
M. Jurstrand
L. Falk
H. Fredlund
M. Lindberg
P. Olcén
S. Andersson
K. Persson
J. Albert
A. Bäckman
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Orebro Medical Centre Hospital, SE-70185 Orebro, Sweden. margaretha.jurstrand@orebroll.se
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Nov;39(11):3915-9
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Ambulatory Care
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Chlamydia Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Chlamydia trachomatis - classification - genetics - metabolism
Female
Female Urogenital Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Genotype
Humans
Male
Male Urogenital Diseases
Middle Aged
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Porins - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Urine - microbiology
Urogenital System - microbiology
Abstract
A method for detection and genotyping of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections based on omp1 gene amplification and sequencing was developed. DNA was extracted from urogenital or urine samples using a Chelex-based method, and an approximately 1,100-bp-long fragment from the omp1 gene was directly amplified and sequenced. Genotyping was performed by BLAST similarity search, and phylogenetic tree analysis was used to illustrate the evolutionary relationships between clinical isolates and reference strains. The method was used to determine the genotypes of C. trachomatis in 237 positive urogenital and/or urine specimens collected at a Swedish sexually transmitted disease clinic during 1 year. The most common genotypes corresponded to serotypes E (47%) and F (17%). The omp1 gene was highly conserved for genotype E (106 of 112 samples without any mutation) and F (41 of 42 samples without any mutation) strains but appear slightly less conserved for genotypes G (n = 6) and H (n = 6), where the sequences displayed one to four nucleotide substitutions relative to the reference sequence. Genotyping of samples collected at the follow-up visit indicated that two patients had become reinfected, while three other patients suffered treatment failure or reinfection. One woman appeared to have a mixed infection with two different C. trachomatis strains. This omp1 genotyping method had a high reproducibility and could be used for epidemiological characterization of sexually transmitted Chlamydia infections.
Notes
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PubMed ID
11682507 View in PubMed
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Characterization of epidemic and nonepidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A strains from Sudan and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37611
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Aug;28(8):1711-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1990
Author
M A Salih
D. Danielsson
A. Bäckman
D A Caugant
M. Achtman
P. Olcén
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Aug;28(8):1711-9
Date
Aug-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antigenic Variation - genetics
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins - genetics
Child
Disease Outbreaks
Fimbriae, Bacterial - immunology
Genotype
Humans
Lipopolysaccharides - genetics
Meningitis - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Neisseria meningitidis - classification - genetics - immunology
Phenotype
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Restriction Mapping
Sudan - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
A random selection of 25 strains isolated during an epidemic caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in Sudan (1988), 3 preepidemic meningococcal strains (1985), and 26 serogroup A strains isolated from sporadic cases of meningitis in Sweden (1973 to 1987) were assessed for multilocus enzyme genotypes (ETs), DNA restriction enzyme patterns, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides, pilus formation, and antibiograms. All of the 25 Sudanese epidemic isolates and 22 of the Swedish strains were of the same or closely related ETs (ETs 3, 4, and 5), corresponding to clone III-1, which has been responsible for two pandemic waves in the last three decades. The earlier pandemic involved Scandinavia, and the last one caused an outbreak during the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (August 1987), spreading to Sudan, Chad, and Ethiopia. The three Sudanese preepidemic isolates (1985) were clone IV-1 (sulfonamide susceptible), which has been resident in the African meningitis belt for the last 25 years. The uniformity of clone III-1 strains (all sulfonamide resistant) from Sudan and Sweden was confirmed by DNA restriction enzyme patterns. ETs 3, 4, and 5 from Sudan and Sweden had 86 to 100% similarity to a Swedish clone III-1 reference strain, whereas ETs 1, 2, 6, and 7 showed 50 to 80% similarity. Class 1 protein for clone III-1 showed serosubtype antigens P1.9 and P1.x, whereas ET6 strains (clone IV-1) had serosubtype P1.7. Lipopolysaccharides were variable in the Sudanese and Swedish strains. Pili were expressed in all clone III-1 isolates from Sudan and Sweden but in none of the clone IV-1 isolates (Sudan, 1985).
PubMed ID
1975593 View in PubMed
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Further studies on chronic osteitis in infancy caused by BCG-vaccination in newborns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251492
Source
Bull Int Union Tuberc. 1976;51(1):251-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Source
J Am Optom Assoc. 1976 Sep;47(9):1205-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1976
Author
H A Backman
Source
J Am Optom Assoc. 1976 Sep;47(9):1205-10
Date
Sep-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Costs and Cost Analysis
Fees and Charges
Female
Health Services - utilization
Humans
Income
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Insurance, Health
Male
Medicare
Middle Aged
National Health Programs
Ophthalmology
Optometry
Quebec
Sex Factors
United States
Abstract
A provincial health insurance system was introduced through Canada more than five years ago. The program and fee schedules for optometric and some ophthalmologic services are presented. Statistics are provided by the government concerning the utilization of optometric and some medical eye services according to the distribution of age and sex in the Quebec population. Relative costs of these services as well as the incomes of health care professionals are compared. It is hoped that this information will aid in the planning and development of the U.S. Medicare program.
PubMed ID
798749 View in PubMed
Less detail

Neonatal BCG vaccination and mycobacterial cervical adenitis in childhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38740
Source
Tubercle. 1987 Dec;68(4):291-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1987
Author
M L Katila
E. Brander
A. Backman
Author Affiliation
Kuopio University Central Hospital, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Finland.
Source
Tubercle. 1987 Dec;68(4):291-6
Date
Dec-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
BCG Vaccine
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland
Humans
Infant
Lymphadenitis - microbiology - prevention & control
Male
Mycobacteria, Atypical - isolation & purification
Mycobacterium Infections - prevention & control
Mycobacterium Infections, Atypical - microbiology - prevention & control
Mycobacterium avium - isolation & purification
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - isolation & purification
Neck
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Tuberculosis, Lymph Node - microbiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Mycobacterial cervical adenitis is an uncommon disease in children in Finland. During 10 years, from 1977-1986, its incidence was of the order of 0.3/year/100,000 children. Of the 12 bacteriologically verified cases, M. avium-intracellulare was isolated in nine, M. malmoense in two and M. tuberculosis in only one case. Neonatal BCG vaccination seemed to protect children against non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, especially at 1-4 years of age. In Sweden, where neonatal BCG vaccination has been discontinued, the incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacterial adenitis is at least 30 times greater.
PubMed ID
3138802 View in PubMed
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13 records – page 1 of 2.