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Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147829
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jan;34(1):182-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
S I I Kring
C. Holst
S. Toubro
A. Astrup
T. Hansen
O. Pedersen
T I A Sørensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jan;34(1):182-9
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alleles
Body Fat Distribution
Body mass index
Cholesterol, HDL - blood - genetics
Denmark - epidemiology
Energy Metabolism - genetics
Genetic Variation - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - blood - epidemiology - genetics - physiopathology
Phenotype
Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4 - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.
Obese young men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg m(-2)) and a randomly selected group (n = 874) identified from a population of 174 800 men were re-examined in three surveys at mean ages 35, 46 and 49 years (S-35, S-46 and S-49). Measurements were available at upto eight times from birth to adulthood. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess odds ratio (OR) for the presence of the carrier allele for a given difference in phenotypic values.
Rs17782313 minor C-allele was associated with overall, abdominal and peripheral fatness (range of OR = 1.06-1.14 per z-score units) at all three surveys, although only consistently significant at S-35 and S-46. Rs17700633 minor A-allele was also associated with the fatness measures, but significantly so only at S-49 for overall and abdominal fatness (range of OR = 1.03-1.15 per z-score units), and peripheral fatness (OR = 1.15-1.20 per z-score units). There were only few significant associations with metabolic traits. The rs17782313 C-allele and the rs17700633 A-allele were both associated with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (range of OR = 0.64-0.84 per mol l(-1)), significantly at S-46. The rs17700633 A-allele was significantly associated with insulin (OR = 1.25 per 50 pmol l(-1)), leptin (OR = 1.42 per 10 ng microl(-1)) and insulin sensitivity (OR = 0.81 per model unit). The rs17782313 C-allele and the rs17700633 A-allele were both associated with BMI in childhood and adolescence (range of OR = 1.04-1.17 per z-score units), significant for the rs17782313 C-allele at the age of 13-19 years and for rs17700633 A-allele at age 7, 10, 13 and 19 years. No significant associations were found for energy expenditure.
Near MC4R variants appear to contribute to body fat, body fat distribution, some metabolic traits, weight development during childhood, but not to energy expenditure.
PubMed ID
19844209 View in PubMed
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Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53319
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;58(7):1062-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
J. Dyerberg
D C Eskesen
P W Andersen
A. Astrup
B. Buemann
J H Christensen
P. Clausen
B F Rasmussen
E B Schmidt
T. Tholstrup
E. Toft
S. Toubro
S. Stender
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark. jdcon@post4.tele.dk
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jul;58(7):1062-70
Date
Jul-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers - blood
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - prevention & control
Cholesterol - blood
Double-Blind Method
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Heart Rate - drug effects - physiology
Humans
Lipoproteins - blood
Lipoproteins, HDL Cholesterol - blood
Lipoproteins, LDL Cholesterol - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Trans Fatty Acids - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after intervention and at follow-up 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in the TFA group and triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. HRV, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the association between coronary heart disease risk and intake of TFA and n-3 PUFA relates only modestly to changes in traditional risk markers. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council (Grant no. 22-01-0390), Center of Advanced Food Research (Copenhagen, Denmark) (Grant no. KVL-R-2001-107), the Danish Heart Association (Grant no. 99-2-3-45-22748), Novozymes (Bagsvaerd, Denmark), Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark), and from private sources. The experimental fats were provided by Pronova Biocare (Aalesund, Norway) and Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark).
PubMed ID
15220949 View in PubMed
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Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61947
Source
BMJ. 1997 Jan 4;314(7073):29-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-4-1997
Author
S. Toubro
A. Astrup
Author Affiliation
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
BMJ. 1997 Jan 4;314(7073):29-34
Date
Jan-4-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Body Weight
Comparative Study
Diet
Diet Records
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Energy intake
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Obesity - diet therapy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Weight Loss
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. DESIGN: Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. SETTING: University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. INTERVENTIONS: 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet ( 5 kg at follow up. RESULTS: Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P 5 kg (P
PubMed ID
9001476 View in PubMed
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Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure: the role of body composition, thyroid status, sympathetic activity, and family membership.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11216
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jul;81(7):2670-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1996
Author
S. Toubro
T I Sørensen
B. Rønn
N J Christensen
A. Astrup
Author Affiliation
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Prederiksberg C. Denmark.
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jul;81(7):2670-4
Date
Jul-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Androgens - blood
Body Composition - physiology
Body Weight
Denmark
Energy Metabolism - genetics - physiology
Epinephrine - blood
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Norepinephrine - blood
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sleep - physiology
Sympathetic Nervous System - physiology
Thyroid Gland - physiology
Triiodothyronine - blood
Abstract
The present study assessed the possible familial effect in 71 healthy Caucasian siblings on each of the variables determining the inter-individual variations in energy expenditure (EE) measured under standardized conditions. We found that the 24-h EE measured in respiration chambers of 71 siblings from 32 different families was positively correlated with fat-free mass, which explained 82% of the variation between subjects (P
PubMed ID
8675595 View in PubMed
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