In nutritional research, the sensations of appetite have mostly been studied as a physiological phenomenon. However, in order to understand the significance of appetite for everyday eating habits, it is pertinent to include the social dimension. In a qualitative interview study, using qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews, we investigated how appetite was experienced and handled in the context of everyday life among 20 men and women. This report examines how qualitative dimensions of appetite are experienced and conceptualised in everyday life. Achieving what was described as proper satiety was found to be of decisive importance for daily eating habits. The experience of being full up, the duration of satiety and the sensuous pleasure of eating were all found to be central dimensions of proper satiety, the definition of which varied according to different social contexts. Whether one ate one's fill in the company of others, alone, at work or in one's spare time turned out to be of decisive importance. A more elaborate understanding of the social dimensions of appetite may help to improve endeavours to prevent overweight and obesity.
Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (SD 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (SD 2·1) kg/m²) males were randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (SE 3) v. 52 (SE 2) kJ/h, respectively, P=0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P=0·63) and energy balance (P=0·67) also did not differ between the treatments. Finally, horseradish decreased heart rate (P=0·048) and increased diastolic blood pressure (P= 0·049) compared with placebo. In conclusion, no reliable treatment effects on appetite, EI or energy balance were observed, although mustard tended to be thermogenic at this dose. Further studies should explore the possible strength and mechanisms of the potential thermogenic effect of mustard actives, and potential enhancement by, for example, combinations with other food components.
Although surveys have reported that the fat content of the diet has decreased over past decades, the prevalence of obesity has continued to rise in Europe and North America. This phenomenon, 'the American paradox', has been attributed partly to an inability of the reduction in dietary fat to reduce excess body fat, and partly to the over-consumption of low-fat products, which, despite their reduced fat content, have in some cases been accused of maintaining a high energy density due to low fibre and water contents, and a high content of refined carbohydrates. In Denmark, the prevalence of obesity has increased in a period in which national dietary surveys have reported a reduction of more than 10% in dietary fat content. Analysing the Danish situation, it seems unlikely that the occurrence of the American paradox in Denmark is caused by the increased consumption of energy-dense, low-fat foods. Other explanations, e.g. the under-reporting of dietary fat in surveys and the clustering of obesity-promoting lifestyles in subgroups of the population, should be sought.
Recent cross-sectional studies found higher consumption of energy-dense foods among children with short sleep duration; however, longitudinal studies examining changes in sleep and diet over time are needed.
This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between changes in objectively measured sleep duration and alterations in proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in 8-11-year-old Danish children.
Four hundred forty-one children recorded dietary intake during seven consecutive days, along with accelerometer measurements estimating sleep duration at baseline and after ~200 days.
Baseline sleep duration did not predict changes in dietary intake or vice versa (all P?=?0.69). However, 1-h lower sleep duration was associated with higher intake of added sugar (1.59 E%; P?=?0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverages (0.90 E%; P?=?0.002) after 200 days with no change in energy density of the diet (P?=?0.78).
Our results suggest that a negative change in sleep duration is associated with higher intakes of sugar containing foods/beverages.
Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.
Obese young men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg m(-2)) and a randomly selected group (n = 874) identified from a population of 174 800 men were re-examined in three surveys at mean ages 35, 46 and 49 years (S-35, S-46 and S-49). Measurements were available at upto eight times from birth to adulthood. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess odds ratio (OR) for the presence of the carrier allele for a given difference in phenotypic values.
Rs17782313 minor C-allele was associated with overall, abdominal and peripheral fatness (range of OR = 1.06-1.14 per z-score units) at all three surveys, although only consistently significant at S-35 and S-46. Rs17700633 minor A-allele was also associated with the fatness measures, but significantly so only at S-49 for overall and abdominal fatness (range of OR = 1.03-1.15 per z-score units), and peripheral fatness (OR = 1.15-1.20 per z-score units). There were only few significant associations with metabolic traits. The rs17782313 C-allele and the rs17700633 A-allele were both associated with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (range of OR = 0.64-0.84 per mol l(-1)), significantly at S-46. The rs17700633 A-allele was significantly associated with insulin (OR = 1.25 per 50 pmol l(-1)), leptin (OR = 1.42 per 10 ng microl(-1)) and insulin sensitivity (OR = 0.81 per model unit). The rs17782313 C-allele and the rs17700633 A-allele were both associated with BMI in childhood and adolescence (range of OR = 1.04-1.17 per z-score units), significant for the rs17782313 C-allele at the age of 13-19 years and for rs17700633 A-allele at age 7, 10, 13 and 19 years. No significant associations were found for energy expenditure.
Near MC4R variants appear to contribute to body fat, body fat distribution, some metabolic traits, weight development during childhood, but not to energy expenditure.
A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified.
The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales.
The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent-reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However, subgroup analyses showed that this effect was only seen in children eating school meals in the classroom (P=0.007), and not in common dining areas (P=0.2). No effect was found on other symptoms of illness.
Provision of nutritionally balanced school meals did not affect school attendance, asthma, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.
BACKGROUND: Studies on soy supplementation suggest a cardioprotective potential. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol and arterial function as a result of dietary enrichment with soy supplementation. DESIGN: A Randomized, double blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, and Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark. SUBJECTS: In all, 100 hypercholesterolaemic but otherwise healthy subjects were included in the study of which 89 completed it. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of daily intake of either a soy supplement, Abalon (30 g soy protein, 9 g cotyledon fibre and 100 mg isoflavones) or placebo (30 g of casein). The soy supplement and placebo were provided in two sachets daily that were stirred in water. Fasting plasma lipids, TNF-alpha, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), serum insulin, serum glucose, blood pressure as well as Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and plasma lipids to a fat-rich meal were recorded before and after the intervention. In a sub study in 32 subjects, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the main study, no difference in fasting plasma lipid levels or insulin sensitivity was found between soy-based supplement and placebo. A significant postprandial increase in GIP to the meal test was observed in the soy group (P
BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after intervention and at follow-up 12 weeks after the intervention. RESULTS: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased in the TFA group and triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 PUFA group compared to the control group. HRV, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the association between coronary heart disease risk and intake of TFA and n-3 PUFA relates only modestly to changes in traditional risk markers. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council (Grant no. 22-01-0390), Center of Advanced Food Research (Copenhagen, Denmark) (Grant no. KVL-R-2001-107), the Danish Heart Association (Grant no. 99-2-3-45-22748), Novozymes (Bagsvaerd, Denmark), Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark), and from private sources. The experimental fats were provided by Pronova Biocare (Aalesund, Norway) and Aarhus Olie (Aarhus, Denmark).