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Alcoholism and cancer risk: a population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24357
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1992 Sep;3(5):419-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1992
Author
H O Adami
J K McLaughlin
A W Hsing
A. Wolk
A. Ekbom
L. Holmberg
I. Persson
Author Affiliation
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1992 Sep;3(5):419-25
Date
Sep-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Laryngeal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Mouth Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The incidence of cancer was studied in a population-based cohort of 9,353 individuals (8,340 men and 1,013 women) with a discharge diagnosis of alcoholism in 1965-83, followed up for 19 years (mean 7.7). After exclusion of cancers in the first year of follow-up, 491 cancers were observed cf 343.2 expected through 1984 (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.4, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-1.6). A similar excess risk of cancer was seen among men (SIR = 1.4, CI = 1.3-1.6) and among women (SIR = 1.5, CI = 1.1-2.0). We observed the established associations with cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (SIR = 4.1, CI = 2.9-5.7), esophagus (SIR = 6.8, CI = 4.5-9.9), larynx (SIR = 3.3, CI = 1.7-6.0), and lung (SIR = 2.1, CI = 1.7-2.6), although confounding by smoking likely increased these risk estimates. While there was evidence of increased risk for pancreatic cancer (SIR = 1.5, CI = 0.9-2.3), alcoholism did not elevate the incidence of cancer of the stomach (SIR = 0.9, CI = 6-1.4), large bowel (SIR = 1.1, CI = 0.8-1.5), prostate (SIR = 1.0, CI = 0.8-1.3), urinary bladder (SIR = 1.0, CI = 0.6-1.5), or of malignant melanoma (SIR = 0.9, CI = 0.3-1.9). Among women, the number of breast cancers observed was close to expected (SIR = 1.2, CI = 0.6-2.2), although a significant excess number of cervical cancers occurred (SIR = 4.2, CI = 1.5-9.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
1525322 View in PubMed
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Alcoholism and liver cirrhosis in the etiology of primary liver cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11847
Source
Int J Cancer. 1992 Jul 30;51(6):898-902
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-30-1992
Author
H O Adami
A W Hsing
J K McLaughlin
D. Trichopoulos
D. Hacker
A. Ekbom
I. Persson
Author Affiliation
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Int J Cancer. 1992 Jul 30;51(6):898-902
Date
Jul-30-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Liver Cirrhosis - complications - epidemiology
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic - complications - epidemiology
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the risk of developing primary liver cancer in patients with a diagnosis of alcoholism, liver cirrhosis, or both. Three population-based, mutually exclusive cohorts were defined on the basis of hospital discharge diagnosis between 1965 and 1983. Complete follow-up through 1984--excluding the first year of follow-up--showed that among 8,517 patients with a diagnosis of alcoholism, 13 cancers occurred, vs. 4.2 expected (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6 to 5.3); among 3,589 patients with liver cirrhosis, 59 cancers occurred, vs. 1.7 expected (SIR = 35.1; 95% CI = 26.7 to 45.3), and among 836 patients with both diagnoses, 11 cancers occurred, vs. 0.3 expected (SIR = 34.3; 95% CI = 17.1 to 61.3). Thus, alcoholism alone entailed a moderately increased risk and alcoholism with liver cirrhosis did not increase the high relative risk for liver cancer more than cirrhosis alone. We conclude that alcohol intake may be a liver carcinogen only by being causally involved in the development of cirrhosis; and further, that the risk of developing liver cancer following cirrhosis in this population is similar to or higher than that after chronic hepatitis-B-virus infection in other Western countries.
PubMed ID
1639537 View in PubMed
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Cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract among patients with pernicious anemia: a case-cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10371
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000 Aug;35(8):847-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
B M Karlson
A. Ekbom
S. Wacholder
J K McLaughlin
A W Hsing
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Surgery, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000 Aug;35(8):847-51
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Anemia, Pernicious - diagnosis - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Digestive System Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology
Esophageal Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Pancreatic Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Stomach Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology
Survival Rate
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: An association between pernicious anemia and stomach cancer has been established in several studies. An increased risk of pancreatic and esophageal cancers has also been reported among pernicious anemia patients. The aim of this case-cohort study was to identify additional risk factors for cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and pancreas among patients with pernicious anemia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 4586 patients with pernicious anemia was linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to identify patients who subsequently developed cancers of the esophagus, stomach, or pancreas using a case-cohort design. A subcohort consisting of 4% of the cohort was randomly selected to serve as the comparison group. Information on medical history, smoking habits, and alcohol use was retrieved from medical charts and analyzed for cancer patients and subcohort members. RESULTS: We could not identify any risk factors other than pernicious anemia for stomach cancer. For pancreatic and esophageal cancer, younger age at diagnosis of pernicious anemia was associated with an increased risk. A prior gastric resection, smoking and alcohol abuse were more frequent among esophageal cancer cases than in the subcohort. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that a causal relationship between pernicious anemia and subsequent development of esophageal or pancreatic cancers still remains unproven. For esophageal cancer, confounding by smoking and alcohol use is the likely explanation of earlier reports of an association. In the case of stomach cancer, both the inflammatory process, secondary to the pernicious anemia, and pernicious anemia per se may be factors leading to malignant transformation.
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Gastroenterol. 2001 Aug;36(8):89611495089
PubMed ID
10994624 View in PubMed
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Cancer risk following primary hemochromatosis: a population-based cohort study in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23351
Source
Int J Cancer. 1995 Jan 17;60(2):160-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-17-1995
Author
A W Hsing
J K McLaughlin
J H Olsen
L. Mellemkjar
S. Wacholder
J F Fraumeni
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.
Source
Int J Cancer. 1995 Jan 17;60(2):160-2
Date
Jan-17-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Hemochromatosis - complications
Humans
Liver Neoplasms - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Risk
Abstract
A population-based cohort of 120 Danish men, discharged with a hospital diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis from 1977 to 1989, was followed up to 1989 for subsequent cancer risk. Nineteen subjects (including 6 with primary liver cancers) were excluded from the analysis, either because they died within the same month of hemochromatosis diagnosis or because they had cancer prior to diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Among the 101 remaining subjects, 4 primary liver cancers occurred one year or more after the diagnosis of hemochromatosis, far surpassing the expected number based on incidence rates from the Danish population (standardized incidence ratio 92.9, 95% confidence interval 25.0 to 237.9). The excess of liver cancer was associated with cirrhosis and included cholangiocarcinoma as well as hepatocellular carcinoma. Significantly elevated risks were also observed for non-hepatic cancers (13 cases; SIR 3.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 6.0), notably esophageal cancer (2 cases; SIR 42.9, 95% CI 4.8 to 154.9) and skin melanoma (2 cases; SIR 27.8, 95% CI 3.1 to 100.3). The results of this population-based study are in accordance with the hypothesis that patients with primary hemochromatosis have a substantial risk of primary liver cancer. Further studies of hemochromatosis may be useful in clarifying the relation of non-hepatic malignancies to body iron stores in the general population.
PubMed ID
7829208 View in PubMed
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International trends and patterns of prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20707
Source
Int J Cancer. 2000 Jan 1;85(1):60-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2000
Author
A W Hsing
L. Tsao
S S Devesa
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20852-7234, USA. hsinga@epndce.nci,nih.gov
Source
Int J Cancer. 2000 Jan 1;85(1):60-7
Date
Jan-1-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
British Columbia - epidemiology
China - epidemiology - ethnology
Continental Population Groups
Denmark - epidemiology
Europe - epidemiology
Hong Kong - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
India - epidemiology
Israel - epidemiology
Japan - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
New South Wales - epidemiology
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
SEER Program
Singapore - epidemiology - ethnology
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in western men, and incidence is rising rapidly in most countries, including low-risk populations. Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates from 15 and 13 countries between 1973-77 and 1988-92, respectively, were compared to provide leads for future analytic studies. Large increases in both incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer were seen for all countries. For incidence, increases were more pronounced in the United States, Canada, Australia, France and the Asian countries, while the increases in medium-risk countries were moderate. Increases in incidence ranged from 25%-114%, 24%-55% and 15%-104% in high-, medium- and low-risk countries, respectively. Mortality rates rose more rapidly in Asian countries than in high-risk countries. Substantial differences in incidence and mortality across countries were evident, with U.S. blacks having rates that were 50-60 times higher than the rates in Shanghai, China. Increasing incidence rates in the United States and Canada are likely to be due in part to the widespread use of transurethral resection of the prostate and prostate-specific antigen testing, while increases in the Asian countries are probably related to westernization in these low-risk populations. The large disparities in incidence between high- and low-risk countries may be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Future studies are needed to examine gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in various countries concurrently to shed light on the etiology of prostate cancer and to help elucidate reasons for the large differences in risk between populations.
PubMed ID
10585584 View in PubMed
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Occupational risks for colon cancer in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23636
Source
J Occup Med. 1994 Jun;36(6):647-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
W H Chow
H S Malker
A W Hsing
J K McLaughlin
J A Weiner
B J Stone
J L Ericsson
W J Blot
Author Affiliation
National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Etiology, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Source
J Occup Med. 1994 Jun;36(6):647-51
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Using the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links census information (1960) with cancer incidence data (1961 to 1979), we conducted a systematic, population-based assessment of colon cancer incidence among cohorts defined by industry and occupation for all employed persons in Sweden. Small but statistically significant excesses of colon cancer were observed among white-collar occupations, including administrators, professionals, and clerical and sales workers, whereas a reduction in incidence was found among workers in agricultural and related jobs, such as farmers, fishermen, and hunters. Analysis by subsite within the colon revealed little difference in results. The observed risk patterns are consistent with previous reports on colon cancer risk and occupational physical activity levels, ie, elevated risk among sedentary white-collar workers and reduced risk among agricultural workers. Few craftsman and production processing jobs were linked to colon cancer, although statistically significant excesses were observed among shoe and leather workers, metal smiths, and foundry workers in the metal manufacturing industry. The findings indicate that occupation in general is likely to play a relatively small role in colon cancer etiology, with perhaps its major contribution an indirect one via physical activity.
PubMed ID
8071728 View in PubMed
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Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20432
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2000 May;42(5):517-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
S. Sharma-Wagner
A P Chokkalingam
H S Malker
B J Stone
J K McLaughlin
A W Hsing
Author Affiliation
George Washington University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Public Health Program of Epidemiology, Washington, D.C., USA.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2000 May;42(5):517-25
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - epidemiology
Cadmium Poisoning - epidemiology
Fertilizers - poisoning
Herbicides - poisoning
Humans
Industry
Male
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To provide new leads regarding occupational prostate cancer risk factors, we linked 36,269 prostate cancer cases reported to the Swedish National Cancer Registry during 1961 to 1979 with employment information from the 1960 National Census. Standardized incidence ratios for prostate cancer, within major (1-digit), general (2-digit), and specific (3-digit) industries and occupations, were calculated. Significant excess risks were seen for agriculture-related industries, soap and perfume manufacture, and leather processing industries. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios were also seen for the following occupations: farmers, leather workers, and white-collar occupations. Our results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and identify specific exposures related to excess risk in these occupations and industries.
PubMed ID
10824305 View in PubMed
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Pernicious anaemia and cancer risk in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22703
Source
Br J Cancer. 1996 Apr;73(8):998-1000
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1996
Author
L. Mellemkjaer
G. Gridley
H. Møller
A W Hsing
M S Linet
L A Brinton
J H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Division for Cancer Epidemiology, Copenhagen O, Denmark.
Source
Br J Cancer. 1996 Apr;73(8):998-1000
Date
Apr-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anemia, Pernicious - complications
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Neoplasms - etiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk
Abstract
A cohort of 5072 patients with pernicious anaemia was identified in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register from 1977 to 1989 and, through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, the occurrence of cancer in the cohort was determined up to 1991. Observed numbers of cancer cases during 1-15 years of follow-up were compared with expected numbers based on national incidence rates. Besides the well-established increased risk for stomach cancer, the analysis also revealed a 2-fold increase in the relative risk for cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx among pernicious anaemia patients in accordance with previous studies; previously reported elevated risks for other digestive tract cancers were not confirmed. There was a non-significantly increased risk for lymphatic and haematological malignancy but the risk tended to disappear after 5 years of follow-up, indicating a possible selection bias. Decreased risks for cervical cancer and non-melanoma skin cancer were also seen.
PubMed ID
8611439 View in PubMed
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[Pernicious anemia and risk of cancer in Denmark]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21970
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1997 Aug 4;159(32):4850-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-4-1997
Author
L. Mellemkjoer
G. Gridley
H. Møller
A W Hsing
M S Linet
L A Brinton
J H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Sektor for kraeftepidemiologi, Kraeftens Bekaempelse, København.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1997 Aug 4;159(32):4850-3
Date
Aug-4-1997
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anemia, Pernicious - complications - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
English Abstract
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - etiology
Registries
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Abstract
The cancer pattern was investigated among 5072 patients with a discharge diagnosis of pernicious anaemia during 1977-1989, using data from the Danish Hospital Discharge, Central Population and Cancer registries. During 1-15 years of follow-up we found, in line with earlier reports, two to three-fold increases in the risk of cancer of the stomach, buccal cavity and pharynx, which were unchanged when the analysis was stratified according to sex and duration of follow-up. A previously reported positive association with haematological cancers could only be found for short term follow-up to indicate that no real association exists. Our cohort of patients with pernicious anaemia experienced significantly reduced risks of cervix and non-melanoma skin cancer.
Notes
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 1997 Sep 22;159(39):58129340892
PubMed ID
9273757 View in PubMed
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Pernicious anemia and subsequent cancer. A population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24137
Source
Cancer. 1993 Feb 1;71(3):745-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-1993
Author
A W Hsing
L E Hansson
J K McLaughlin
O. Nyren
W J Blot
A. Ekbom
J F Fraumeni
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Etiology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
Source
Cancer. 1993 Feb 1;71(3):745-50
Date
Feb-1-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anemia, Pernicious - complications - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND. Elevated risk of cancers of the stomach, colon, and buccal cavity, as well as of lymphoma and leukemia, have been reported for patients with pernicious anemia in case reports and hospital-based and cross-sectional studies. METHODS. A cohort of 2021 men and 2496 women living in the Uppsala health care region in Sweden, discharged with a hospital diagnosis of pernicious anemia from 1965 to 1983, was followed for 20 years for subsequent risk of cancer. RESULTS. A total of 553 cancers were diagnosed among these patients, significantly more than expected based on cancer standardized incidence rates (SIRs) in the general population (SIR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.5). Most prominent were excesses for cancer of the stomach (SIR = 2.9; 95% CI, 2.4-3.5), esophagus (SIR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-5.2), and pancreas (SIR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4) among men and women; myeloid leukemia among men (SIR = 4.4; 95% CI, 1.8-5.2); and multiple myeloma among women (SIR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9). An excess of gastric carcinoid tumors also was evident in this cohort. The risk of stomach cancer was highest in the first year after diagnosis of pernicious anemia (SIR = 7.4; 95% CI, 5.3-10.1), but an increased risk persisted throughout the follow-up period. The risk of esophageal cancer also remained elevated throughout the study period, although the risk of pancreatic cancer dropped off after 5 years. CONCLUSIONS. This study confirms the excess risk of gastric carcinoma and carcinoid tumors associated with pernicious anemia, and suggests that the susceptibility state may extend to esophageal and other cancers.
PubMed ID
8431855 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.