Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has an essential role in lipoprotein metabolism, but recent studies have also revealed other functions associated with it, eg, neurologic and malignant diseases. We studied the association between apoE phenotypes E2/3, E3/3, and E4/3 and blood pressure after adjustment for covariates, as well as the association between phenotypes and adjusted plasma glucose and insulin levels in the standard oral glucose tolerance test in a random middle-aged population-based cohort of 259 men and 267 women. Systolic blood pressure was associated with apoE phenotype in the men with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption (>115 g/week), the mean systolic blood pressure value being 16 mm Hg higher in the E2/3 and 11 mm Hg higher in the E3/3 phenotypes than in the E4/3 phenotype, P = .04. No association was seen in occasional drinkers or teetotalers (lowest tertile
Comment In: Am J Hypertens. 1999 Sep;12(9 Pt 1):946-710509555
Comment In: Am J Hypertens. 1999 Sep;12(9 Pt 1):949-5010509558
OBJECTIVE: Variations in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene have been implicated in cardiovascular pathology. Therefore, the association between the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery and the insertion/ deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was investigated. SUBJECTS: Three hundred men and 300 women were selected randomly from the middle-aged population living in the town Oulu, Finland, of whom 515 subjects (85.8%) participated. METHODS: The IMT of the carotid arteries was determined by bilateral B-mode ultrasonography. IMT values were adjusted for gender, age, height, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, smoking and systolic blood pressure. The I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Among non-smokers, the subjects with the DD genotype had significantly higher carotid IMT than did those with II or ID. The association was found also in combined IMT plaque values. In the total population the association was weaker and it was absent in current smokers. Genotype could explain 1.3-2.7% of the variance of carotid IMT in non-smokers. No association between the amount or size of carotid plaques and genotype was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Variations at the ACE gene locus contribute to the degree of the early changes in carotid atherosclerosis in the population. The gene effect is, however, masked by stronger effects of environmental factors such as smoking. The lack of association between atherosclerotic plaques and genotypes may reflect different mechanisms being involved in plaque development and early arterial wall thickening.
BACKGROUND: The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is involved in the reverse cholesterol transport and is therefore a candidate gene for atherosclerosis. DESIGN: The prevalences of the I405V and the R451Q polymorphisms were studied in a population sample of 515 men and women. Genotypes were determined by PCR and carotid atherosclerosis by ultrasonography as the mean intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries. RESULTS: The Q451 allele was associated with significantly lower intima media thickness in men (P = 0.001). The Q451 allele was, in our earlier study, associated with high plasma CETP activity in men. The VV405 genotype was associated with lower plasma CETP activity compared with the II405 genotype (P
OBJECTIVE: To study the nutrient intakes and other lifestyle patterns of drug-treated hypertensives and control subjects. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study. SETTING: The participating study subjects visited the research laboratory of the Department of Internal Medicine of the University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1045 Finnish men and women aged 40-60 years, of whom 716 (69%) completed 7-day food records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intakes of energy, protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, alcohol, fibre, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium were assessed from 7-day food records. The study also included measurements of blood pressure, blood glucose and plasma lipids, and anthropometric variables. Information about alcohol consumption, smoking habits and physical activity was collected by interviewing. RESULTS: Obesity was common amongst the hypertensive subjects, whose body mass indices were significantly higher than those of the control subjects. Only minor differences existed in the energy intake levels and nutrient intakes of the hypertensive and control cohorts, but the control subjects performed more physical activity than the hypertensive subjects. The dietary recommendations concerning the intakes of total and saturated fats, carbohydrate and fibre were poorly met by both the hypertensive and the control subjects. Alcohol consumption was high amongst the hypertensive men, especially amongst the smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Non-pharmacological treatment, including dietary management, of hypertensive patients at high risk for cardiovascular complications seems still to be inadequate. Additional well-focused efforts are needed to intensify the dietary treatment as well as to reduce alcohol consumption and smoking amongst hypertensives.
Effect of hypertension and risk factors on diameters of abdominal aorta and common iliac and femoral arteries in middle-aged hypertensive and control subjects: a cross-sectional systematic study with duplex ultrasound.
There is a general tendency towards atherosclerosis and arterial dilatation in older age, and high blood pressure also tends to increase arterial diameters. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors on aortic, common iliac and common femoral artery diameters. The diameters of the abdominal aorta and the iliac and femoral arteries and the extent of echogenic plaques in the aorta and the iliac arteries down to groin level were evaluated with ultrasound in 1007 middle-aged (40-60 years) men (505) and women (502), 496 with arterial hypertension and 511 controls. Twenty-eight subjects were excluded because of poor visualization. Men had significantly larger diameters of the abdominal aorta (mean 21.3+/-2.8 vs. 17.8+/-1.3 mm) and the common iliac (13.4+/-2.0 vs. 12.2+/-1.2) and common femoral arteries (11.0+/-1.4 vs. 9.7+/-0.9) than women (P for all
The aim of the study was to investigate in a population-based series (1031 subjects, age range 40-60 years) whether the renal size of hypertensive subjects differs from that of control subjects and whether the difference might be due to hypertension itself or risk factors associated with hypertension. The renal measurements were performed by abdominal ultrasound. The genders were analyzed separately. Hypertensive men had slightly larger kidneys than controls (70.1+/-8.9 cm2 vs. 67.9+/-8.7 cm2, p
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (GTP) and the components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study of hypertensive patients and controls. SETTING: The participating subjects visited the research laboratory of the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. SUBJECTS: A total of 1045 Caucasians, 40-59 years of age, consisting of 261 drug-treated hypertensive men, 258 drug-treated hypertensive women and 526 age- and sex-matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The associations between GTP and the cardiovascular risk factors were analysed through multiple regression and logistic methods and by GTP tertiles. The independent effect of GTP on different insulin measures, calculated from the values of 2 h of oral glucose tolerance test, was estimated after concurrent adjustment for age, obesity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: GTP correlated highly significantly with the components of the metabolic syndrome. The correlation coefficient were 0.33 between GTP and body mass index, 0. 25 between GTP and systolic blood pressure in control men (P = 0. 0001), 0.39 between GTP and triglycerides, and 0.32 between GTP and fasting insulin in hypertensive women (P = 0.0001). The association between GTP and blood pressure remained significant only at upright measurements in controls. All insulin measures had a significant positive association with increasing GTP tertiles in all the study groups (e.g. fasting insulin 8.1 mU L-1 in the lowest and 11.0 mU L-1in the highest tertile in control women, P = 0.0001), with the exception of fasting insulin in control men. In a pooled logistic analysis after adjustment for age, body mass index, alcohol consumption and gender, the independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome were body mass index, uric acid, total cholesterol and GTP (for log-transformed GTP odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI: 2.80-5.69). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant associations between GTP and the components of the metabolic syndrome. Elevated levels of GTP may not always indicate increased alcohol consumption, but may also suggest the existence of the metabolic syndrome with its subsequent deleterious consequences.
Low heart rate (HR) variability is a risk factor for cardiac mortality in various patient populations, but it has not been well established whether patients with long-standing hypertension have abnormalities in the autonomic modulation of HR. Time and frequency domain measures of HR variability were compared in randomly selected, age-matched populations of 188 normotensive and 168 hypertensive males (mean age 50 +/- 6 years for both). The standard deviation of the RR intervals was lower in the hypertensive subjects than in the normotensive ones (52 +/- 19 vs 59 +/- 20 mss; p
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationships between carotid atherosclerosis measured as intima-media thickness (IMT) and different measures of insulin in a population-based case-control study of men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Carotid ultrasonographic measurements and 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in a random sample of 513 hypertensive subjects, aged 40-59 years, and in 518 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The associations between IMT and the different measures of insulin were analyzed through multiple regression and by insulin quintiles. The independent effect of insulin was estimated after concurrent adjustment for age, obesity, LDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: The most powerful correlates with IMT were LDL cholesterol, age, systolic blood pressure, pack-years of smoking, and of the different insulin parameters, 2-h post-load insulin. In stepwise regression analysis, the independent predictors of the mean IMT were LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pack-years of smoking, and age (P
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities associated with hypertension and to define the predictors of the metabolic syndrome by different definitions in random population-based samples. DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological study of hypertensive patients and controls. SETTING: The participating study subjects visited the research laboratory of the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. SUBJECTS: Six hundred treated male and female hypertensives aged 40-59 years and 600 age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected by age stratification from population registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A wide range of laboratory analyses were conducted. After fasting blood had been drawn, the subjects were given a 75 g glucose load except previously known insulin-treated diabetics. Both 1 h and 2 h glucose and insulin concentrations were determined. During the same visit, a standardized health questionnaire covering the past medical history, current and former medication use, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and family history was completed. Ten different definitions of the metabolic syndrome were applied to achieve a wide perspective of the prevalence of the different combinations. RESULTS: The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in different samples varied depending on the definition from 0.8 to 35.3%, being lowest in the control men and women and highest in the hypertensive men. Three-quarters of a random, middle-aged, urban population show at least one cardiovascular risk factor and 91.3% of all the hypertensive subjects show at least one cardiovascular risk factor in addition to hypertension itself. The independent predictors of the metabolic syndrome were waist circumference, uric acid, total cholesterol and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in logistic analysis after adjustment for age, measure of obesity and gender. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional, epidemiological study shows that the magnitude of the prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome is at the same level in various populations, being less than one-third in population-based samples in spite of the different definitions. The cluster of several cardiovascular risk factors, especially in the hypertensives, leads to an increased relative risk of cardiovascular diseases.