BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The content of (13)C and (15)N isotopes is higher in marine than in terrestrial food. (13)C and (15)N in human tissue therefore reflects the relative proportions of marine and terrestrial food consumed by the individual. The objective of this study was to measure (13)C and (15)N in liver tissue from Greenlandic Inuit and Danes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Normal liver tissue was obtained at autopsy in 1992-1994 from 60 Inuit with a median age of 61 years (range 25-83) and in 1986 from 15 ethnic Danes with a median age of 84 years (range 66-93). By sieving, liver tissue was separated in a 'cellular fraction' and a 'connective tissue fraction'. (13)C and (15)N in dry liver tissue was measured on a mass spectrometer. delta(13)C indicates the (13)C content relative to the IAEA-CH-6 reference standard. delta(15)N indicates (15)N content relative to the atmospheric nitrogen reference standard. RESULTS: Inuit: median delta(13)C was -21.2 per thousand in cellular and -20.0 per thousand in connective tissue fractions (P=0.001). Median delta(15)N was 10.6 per thousand in both cellular and connective tissue fractions. Body mass index was negatively correlated with delta(13)C in the connective tissue fraction (r(s)=-0.42, P=0.057). Danes: median delta(13)C was -27.0 per thousand in cellular and -24.3 per thousand in connective tissue fractions (P=0.11). Median delta(15)N was 9.5 per thousand in cellular and 8.9 per thousand in connective tissue fractions (P=0.5). Inuit had higher delta(13)C than Danes in both cellular and connective tissue fractions (P
OBJECTIVE: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Population study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. INTERVENTIONS: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages. Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. RESULTS: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible. The between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake appeared to be stable over the range of age and BMI in both sexes. As compared to estimated total energy expenditure, both diet assessment methods underestimated energy intake by approximately 20%. For both methods the under-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. CONCLUSIONS: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council, the FREJA programme.
OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self reported and functional ability was assessed by the Physical Performance Test (PPT) and self reported mobility including information about tiredness and help. RESULTS: After dividing BMI into three groups: BMI 29 no relationship was seen between a BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2, and physical activity and functional ability. BMI was related to body fat mass, and FFM was related to muscle strength. Muscle strength was related to mobility and PPT. Mobility and PPT were mutually related and were related to physical activity. CONCLUSION: Our cross sectional study did not support newly proposed guidelines for the elderly of an optimal BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2. We found relations between body composition, muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability.
The standard retirement age in Denmark is 67 years. Sixteen percent of its total population is aged 65 and above. Danes enjoy a high average life expectancy: 72 years for men and just under 78 years for women. The elderly can be divided into two groups: 1) healthy elderly people resident at home and 2) sick elderly people resident at home and in institutions. The majority of the elderly enjoy generally good health. The diet-related diseases are the same as those affecting the rest of the population, and they are caused by an excessively high energy content of a diet which is poorly balanced in terms of macro-nutrients. While Danes receive adequate supplies of most vitamins and minerals, their fat intake is too high. Danish nutritional recommendations for healthy pensioners include a daily vitamin D intake of 10 microgrammes. Sick pensioners or small-eaters should follow the dietary recommendations for Danish hospitals. In accordance with the Danish Government's prevention program, the National Danish Food Agency is required to: provide increased opportunities for choosing a healthy diet; provide the possibility for flexible mealtimes; and provide the possibility for communal dining. From 1991, the National Food Agency has been allocated responsibility for the provision of public information concerning the prevention of diet-related diseases. Previously, it was the responsibility of the National Consumer Agency, which formulated general dietary advice recommendations.
Ageing is associated with decreased resistance to bacterial infections and concomitant increased circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to research age-related changes in levels of early mediators of the acute-phase response in whole blood supernatants following LPS stimulation, representing an ex vivo model of sepsis. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta and IL-6 in whole blood supernatants were measured after in vitro LPS stimulation for 24 h in 168 elderly humans aged 81 years from the 1914 cohort in Glostrup, Denmark and in 91 young controls aged 19-31 years. Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta were significantly lower in elderly humans compared with young controls, whereas no difference was detected with regard to IL-6. Elderly humans with low body mass index had the lowest levels of IL-1beta. Young women had lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with young men, but this difference was blurred by ageing. No relation was found between circulating plasma levels of TNF-alpha and levels after in vitro LPS stimulation. In conclusion, decreased production of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta after exposure to LPS may reflect impaired host defence against infections in the elderly and be of importance in elderly humans with underlying health disorders. However, the clinical relevance is questionable in healthy elderly people because decreased levels were found compared with young men but not compared with young women.
Quality control including validation in dietary surveys of elderly subjects. The validation of a dietary history method (the SENECA-method) used in the 1914-population study in Glostrup of Danish men and women aged 80 years.
BACKGROUND: Quality control including validation in dietary surveys is needed to reduce and detect errors which would lead to an attenuated scientific foundation for the diet-disease relationship. Especially studies in the elderly are needed because of limited knowledge of reference values, cut-off values etc. OBJECTIVE: To validate a modified dietary history method (the SENECA-method) in elderly subjects. DESIGN: A survey of Danish men and women aged 80 years, who participated in the 1914-population study in Glostrup. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A pilot study (n = 34) validated the dietary history against 24-h urine collections; a main study (n = 240) compared dietary history with a 3-day estimated food record. RESULTS: Protein intake from dietary history was 10% higher than calculated protein intake from 24-h urine collections. Differences in intakes of energy and macronutrients between dietary history and 3-day food record were generally small and non-significant, and there was good agreement between the methods in classifying nutrient intakes into same tertiles. A Bland & Altman plot indicated increasing differences in energy intake between methods with increased energy intake. Evidence for under-reporting of energy intake and/or over-reporting of the physical activity level was further made plausible when physical activity ratio was compared to recognized cut-off limits. CONCLUSIONS: The modified dietary history method can be used to estimate dietary intake in 80 year old subjects, but some degree of misreporting, especially under-reporting, appears to be present. Keeping this in mind it is, however, possible to analyse dietary intake against other survey data.
The results of treatment of obesity by means of conventional dietary advice in the nutritional physiological laboratory. The Municipal Hospital, Copenhagen, during a period of 17 years are reviewed. This review involves 1,640 patients, 973 women and 667 men. 31% had a body mass index (BMI) of 25-29 kg/m2, 59% had BMI of 30-39 kg/m2 and 10% had BMI greater than or equal to 40 kg/m2. After 12 weeks, a total of 56.4% and after 16 weeks 50% of the patients were still receiving treatment. The weight-loss by the 12th week averaged 6.7 kg for women and 7.8 kg and 9.2 kg, respectively. The percentage of defaulters by the 12th week was independent of sex, initial BMI and the presence of other possible diagnoses but was significantly higher for the younger patients (less than 40 years) as compared with the older patients (greater than or equal to 40 years). The weight-loss at the 12th week was independent of age but was significantly positively correlated to high initial BMI and presumably high energy intake in the dietary history. The number of control weighings (frequency of attendance) was the parameter which best correlated to the weight-loss with an average weight-loss of 0.14 kg per attendance.