BACKGROUND: The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. METHODS: In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. CONCLUSIONS: Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma and are unlikely to contribute to the increasing incidence or the male predominance.
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine nutrition approximated by birth weight has been shown to be inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). By investigating the association within twin pairs discordant for disease, the influence of genetic and early environmental factors is substantially reduced. METHODS: We have investigated the association between birth weight and angina pectoris in same-sexed twins with known zygosity included in the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. Self-reports of birth weight and angina pectoris were collected in a telephone interview between 1998 and 2000. The cohort analyses were based on 4594 same-sexed twins, and the within-pair analyses included 55 dizygotic and 37 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for angina pectoris. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with birth weight between 2.0 and 2.9 kg, low birth weight (
This study aimed to disentangle the independent contributions of Helicobacter pylori infections in mothers, fathers and siblings to the risk for the infection in the 11-13 years age group. Index children from a cross-sectional Stockholm school survey and their family members completed questionnaires and contributed blood samples. H. pylori serostatus was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot. Fifty-four seropositive and 108 seronegative index children were included and 480 out of 548 family members contributed blood. In multivariate logistic regression modelling, having an infected mother (OR 11.6, 95% CI 2.0-67.9) or at least one infected sibling (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.8-37.3) were risk factors for index child infection, whilst the influence of infected fathers was non-significant. Birth in high-prevalence countries was an independent risk factor (OR 10.4, 95% CI 3.4-31.3). H. pylori infections in mothers and siblings and birth in high-prevalence countries stand out as strong markers of infection risk amongst children in Sweden.
: Diverticulitis is a risk factor for fistula formation but little is known about the influence of hysterectomy in this association. A population-based nationwide matched cohort study was performed to determine the risk of fistula formation in hysterectomized women with, and without, diverticulitis.
: Women who had a hysterectomy between 1973 and 2003, and a matched control cohort, were identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register. Incidence of diverticulitis and fistula surgery was determined by cross-linkage to the Register, and risk was estimated using a Cox regression model.
: In a cohort of 168 563 hysterectomized and 614 682 non-hysterectomized women (mean follow-up 11.0 and 11.5 years respectively), there were 14 051 cases of diverticulitis and 851 fistulas. Compared with women who had neither hysterectomy nor diverticulitis, the risk of fistula surgery increased fourfold in hysterectomized women without diverticulitis (hazard ratio (HR) 4.0 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 3.5 to 4.7)), sevenfold in non-hysterectomized women with diverticulitis (HR 7.6 (4.8 to 12.1)) and 25-fold in hysterectomized women with diverticulitis (HR 25.2 (15.5 to 41.2)).
: Diverticulitis, and to a lesser extent hysterectomy, is strongly associated with the risk of fistula formation. Hysterectomized women with diverticulitis have the highest risk of developing surgically managed fistula.
Recent studies have suggested an association between high dietary intake of calcium and the risk of prostate cancer. Calcium-rich diet has been suggested to affect the serum levels of Vitamin D, and thereby promote cancer. We conducted the largest study of the association between prediagnostic serum levels of calcium and the risk of prostate cancer.
We examined the incidence of prostate cancer in relation to prediagnostic serum calcium levels in a prospective cohort study of 22,391 healthy Swedish men, of which 1,539 incident cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed during the 30 years of follow-up until December 2006.
Serum levels of calcium were measured at baseline, and categorized into quartiles. Cox regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
We found no evidence of an association between prediagnostic serum levels of calcium and risk of prostate cancer (HR for trend = 0.99 [95% CI;0.94-1.03]). However, a moderate significant negative association was seen in men with a BMI above 25 and aged below 45 years at baseline (Highest vs. lowest quartile, HR = 0.63 [95% CI;0.40-0.99]).
These data do not support the hypothesis that high serum calcium levels is a risk factor for prostate cancer. On the contrary, the data suggest that high serum levels of calcium in young overweight men may be a marker for a decreased risk of developing prostate cancer.
Metastatic breast cancer is a severe condition without curative treatment. How relative and absolute risk of distant metastasis varies over time since diagnosis, as a function of treatment, age and tumour characteristics, has not been studied in detail.
A total of 9514 women under the age of 75 when diagnosed with breast cancer in Stockholm and Gotland regions during 1990-2006 were followed up for metastasis (mean follow-up=5.7 years). Time-dependent development of distant metastasis was analysed using flexible parametric survival models and presented as hazard ratio (HR) and cumulative risk.
A total of 995 (10.4%) patients developed distant metastasis; the most common sites were skeleton (32.5%) and multiple sites (28.3%). Women younger than 50 years at diagnosis, with lymph node-positive, oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative, >20 mm tumours and treated only locally, had the highest risk of distant metastasis (0-5 years' cumulative risk =0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.64). Women older than 50 years at diagnosis, with ER-positive, lymph node-negative and =20-mm tumours, had the same and lowest cumulative risk of developing metastasis 0-5 and 5-10 years (cumulative risk=0.03; 95% CI: 0.02-0.04). In the period of 5-10 years after diagnosis, women with ER-positive, lymph node-positive and >20-mm tumours were at highest risk of distant recurrence. Women with ER-negative tumours showed a decline in risk during this period.
Our data show no support for discontinuation at 5 years of clinical follow-up in breast cancer patients and suggest further investigation on differential clinical follow-up for different subgroups of patients.
Emerging evidence links inflammation and immune competence to cancer progression and outcome. Few studies addressing cancer survival in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reported reduced survival without accounting for the underlying mortality risk in RA. Whether this increased mortality is a cancer-specific phenomenon, an effect of the decreased lifespan in RA or a combination of both remains unknown.
Using Swedish register data (2001-2009), we performed a cohort study of individuals with RA (N=34 930), matched to general population comparators (N=169 740), incident cancers (N=12 676) and deaths (N=14 291). Using stratified Cox models, we estimated HRs of death associated with RA in the presence and absence of cancer, by stage and time since cancer diagnosis, for all cancers and specific sites.
In the absence of cancer, RA was associated with a doubled mortality rate (HR=2.1, 95% CI 2.0 to 2.2). In the presence of cancer, the relative effect of RA on mortality was varied by stage. For cancer (tumour, node, metastases) stages I and II at diagnosis, the relative effect of RA on mortality was the same as in the absence of cancer. For cancers diagnosed at advanced stages with absolute higher mortality, the effect decreased (HR=1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3). These associations remained across time since cancer diagnosis and were reasonably similar across cancer sites.
Much of the increase in mortality in patients with RA diagnosed with cancer seems to reside with effects of RA independently of the cancer.