The epidemiological evidence relating alcohol consumption and lung cancer is reviewed. Four correlation studies have shown a relationship between alcohol, particularly beer, consumption and lung cancer. Beer consumption was a risk factor in one case-control study. Eight out of ten prospective studies show alcoholics and high alcohol consumers to be at greater risk of lung cancer. Not all of the increased risk in these studies is explainable in terms of confounding by tobacco consumption. There is some animal evidence which supports the effects of alcohol on the likelihood of developing lung cancer.
Abstract. McMichael AJ, Lindgren E (The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden). Climate change: present and future risks to health: and necessary responses (Review). J Intern Med 2011; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02415.x. Recent observed changes in Earth's climate, to which humans have contributed substantially, are affecting various health outcomes. These include altered distributions of some infectious disease vectors (ticks at high latitudes, malaria mosquitoes at high altitudes), and an uptrend in extreme weather events and associated deaths, injuries and other health outcomes. Future climate change, if unchecked, will have increasing, mostly adverse, health impacts - both direct and indirect. Climate change will amplify health problems in vulnerable regions, influence infectious disease emergence, affect food yields and nutrition, increase risks of climate-related disasters and impair mental health. The health sector should assist society understand the risks to health and the needed responses.
A radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the detection of Russell's viper venom in body fluids. This is a competitive binding technique using a monoclonal antibody directed against the factor X activator of Russell's viper venom. The sensitivity of the test in urine was 4 ng/ml, in 0.1% bovine serum albumin-phosphate buffered saline it was 20 ng/ml and in serum it was 5 micrograms/ml. This was adequate to detect venom in the serum of four patients bitten by Russell's viper. Urine from an isolated kidney preparation perfused with Russell's viper venom contained coagulant activity and was positive using the competitive RIA. Testing of sera from other envenomated patients and pure venom from seven other species of snake indigenous to Thailand revealed RIA cross reactivity between cobra venom and Russell's viper venom. In practice, the absence of coagulant activity in cobra venom clearly distinguishes between the two. Although further development is required to elucidate the serum factors interfering with this assay, this is a promising technique, which is of potential value in the diagnosis and investigation of the pathophysiology of Russell's viper envenomation.