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An evaluation of the Saskatchewan pit and fissure sealant program: a longitudinal followup.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature231474
Source
J Public Health Dent. 1989;49(4):206-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1989
Author
A I Ismail
W. King
D C Clark
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
J Public Health Dent. 1989;49(4):206-11
Date
1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Cohort Studies
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Pit and Fissure Sealants - therapeutic use
Saskatchewan
School Dentistry
Abstract
The Saskatchewan Health Dental Plan (SHDP) is a publicly funded dental insurance program for children between the ages of five and 16 years residing in the province. In 1981, fissure sealants were added as a covered expense. Until September 1, 1987, sealants and other dental treatments covered under the SHDP were provided to schoolchildren by dental therapists in dental clinics established in elementary schools throughout the province. After September 1, 1987, the provision of dental services was transferred to private practitioners in the province. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the retention rates of sealants after one, two, and three years of placement; and (2) conduct a longitudinal followup of sealed and unsealed sound teeth to measure the effectiveness of sealants in reducing dental caries incidence. Relative to the first objective, a cohort of children was identified and comparisons were carried out for the periods of 1982-83, 1982-84, and 1982-85. For the last objective, a longitudinal evaluation of effectiveness was carried out only for children five to seven years of age in 1981. Saskatchewan children, who experienced higher caries prevalence than children in the United States, had the highest caries increments on occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth. About 79 percent of the sealants applied by dental therapists were retained three years after application. Sealed teeth experienced 46 percent less caries than unsealed teeth four years after the application of sealants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
2810215 View in PubMed
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Community periodontal index of treatment needs and prevalence of periodontal conditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198316
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2000 May;27(5):308-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
M. Benigeri
J M Brodeur
M. Payette
A. Charbonneau
A I Ismaïl
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Clin Periodontol. 2000 May;27(5):308-12
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Epidemiologic Methods
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Periodontal Diseases - epidemiology
Periodontal Index
Periodontal Pocket - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
In 1977, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a new index, the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) to evaluate the periodontal treatment needs of populations. The aim of this study is to compare different approaches of recording and presenting the CPITN.
A sample of 2110 subjects aged 35-44 years were examined between September 1994 and July 1995, throughout the province of Quebec, Canada. For each tooth (3rd molars excluded), the presence of bleeding and calculus, the level of epithelial attachment, and the depth of periodontal pockets were measured. Periodontal pocket depths were measured from the edge of the free gingiva, at 2 sites (mesiovestibular and vestibular), as well as all around the tooth.
Only 8.5% of adults had at least one tooth with a 6 mm or deeper periodontal pocket when probing on 2 sites, whereas if probing is done all around the tooth, this percentage is 2.5x higher (21.4%). The partial recording of pocket depths (10 index teeth recommended by WHO, or 2 quadrants chosen at random) resulted in an underestimation of the prevalence of subjects with at least one tooth with a periodontal pocket (CPITN score 3 and 4). Among subjects with at least one tooth with a 6 mm or deeper periodontal pocket, 12% were not detected with the 10 index teeth recording, and 25% go undetected with the measure on 2 quadrants. Finally, using the % of subjects with periodontal pockets overestimates the prevalence of deep pockets compared with using sextants. Indeed, close to 30.0% of sextants have no treatment needs, whereas only 5.2% of subjects are in this category. Similarly, 7.7% of sextants have at least one tooth with a 6 mm or deeper periodontal pocket, yet there are 3x more subjects in this category (21.4%).
PubMed ID
10847533 View in PubMed
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Educational research in schools of dentistry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193557
Source
J Dent Educ. 2001 Aug;65(8):766-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
A I Ismail
Author Affiliation
Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences, and Endodontics School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1078, USA. ismailai@umich.edu
Source
J Dent Educ. 2001 Aug;65(8):766-7
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Competency-Based Education
Dental Research
Education, Dental - methods
Health Services Research
Humans
Models, Educational
Schools, Dental
United States
Notes
Comment On: J Dent Educ. 2001 Aug;65(8):751-911518246
Comment On: J Dent Educ. 2001 Aug;65(8):760-511518247
PubMed ID
11518248 View in PubMed
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The impact of universal access to dental care on disparities in caries experience in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195307
Source
J Am Dent Assoc. 2001 Mar;132(3):295-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
A I Ismail
W. Sohn
Author Affiliation
Department of Cariology, Restorative Sciences and Endodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, 1011 N. University, Ann Arbor, Mich. 48109-1078, USA. ismailai@umich.edu
Source
J Am Dent Assoc. 2001 Mar;132(3):295-303
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Child
Cluster analysis
DMF Index
Dental Care for Children - statistics & numerical data
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Dental Restoration, Permanent - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Fluoridation - statistics & numerical data
Health Services Accessibility - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Nova Scotia - epidemiology
Observer Variation
Parents - education
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Tooth, Deciduous
Toothbrushing - statistics & numerical data
Universal Coverage - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The authors investigated the association between socioeconomic status and the severity of dental caries in 6- and 7-year-old children who had had access to dental care throughout their lives. The children had lived since birth in Nova Scotia, Canada, a province with a universal publicly financed dental care program.
The authors selected a representative sample of first-grade children using a stratified multistage sampling method of primary schools (n = 1,614). The response rate was 78.8 percent. Two dentists were trained to diagnose dental caries using modified World Health Organization criteria. Intra- and interexaminer reliability was excellent (kappa > or = 0.88). Of the children who were examined (n = 1,271), 955 were lifelong residents of Nova Scotia, Canada, and so were included in this analysis. Data were weighted and adjusted for clustering (design) effects.
Only 8.4 percent of the children had visited a dental office before the age of 2 years, and 88.5 percent of the children had their first dental visit between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Children whose parents had completed a university education had a significantly lower mean number of decayed, missing and filled surfaces, or dmfs, in their primary teeth than did children whose parents had a lower education level. A Poisson regression model indicated that parents' high education status, optimal fluoride concentration in schools' water supplies, daily toothbrushing and dental visits for checkup were significantly associated with low dmfs scores.
Having access to a universal publicly financed dental insurance program since birth did not eliminate the disparities in caries experience.
This analysis of a highly utilized universal dental insurance program suggests that disparities in oral health status cannot be reduced solely by providing universal access to dental care. Focused efforts by professional and governmental organizations should be directed toward understanding the socioeconomic, behavioral and community determinants of oral health disparities.
PubMed ID
11258086 View in PubMed
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A longitudinal evaluation of fissure sealants applied in dental practices.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214493
Source
J Dent Res. 1995 Sep;74(9):1583-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1995
Author
A I Ismail
P. Gagnon
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Source
J Dent Res. 1995 Sep;74(9):1583-90
Date
Sep-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Binomial Distribution
Child
Cluster analysis
Dental Care - economics
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Dental Fissures - therapy
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Molar
Pit and Fissure Sealants - economics - therapeutic use
Private Practice
Quebec - epidemiology
Sampling Studies
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Sealants are highly effective in preventing dental caries in the pits and fissures of teeth when applied by trained operators in clinical trials and public health programs. The effectiveness of fissure sealants when applied in dental practices is still not known. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fissure sealants applied in dental practices in preventing dental caries on occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars. In 1990, on the Island of Montréal, 911 randomly selected children, from 6 to 9 years of age, were examined; out of those, 816 and 733 were re-examined in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Only the 733 children with complete examination records were included in this evaluation. Sealant applications were either personally paid for or were paid for by private dental insurers. All children were covered for diagnosis and restorative care by a publicly financed and universal insurance program. Dental treatment records were provided by Quebec's health insurance board. In the epidemiological examination, the occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars, which are the only surfaces included in this analysis, were classified into: sound, non-cavitated and cavitated status, restored, and sealed. Sealants were evaluated for full or partial coverage of the occlusal surface and presence of dental caries. During the first and second years, 11.6% and 17.5% of the students had new sealants. The number of new sealants placed during the two years was 507. Children with caries-free status and whose parents had high school education or higher were significantly more likely to receive sealants during the study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7560420 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in students, 11-17 years of age, in fluoridated and non-fluoridated cities in Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103537
Source
Caries Res. 1990;24(4):290-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
A I Ismail
J M Brodeur
M. Kavanagh
G. Boisclair
C. Tessier
L. Picotte
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
Source
Caries Res. 1990;24(4):290-7
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology
Female
Fluoridation
Fluorides - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Fluorosis, Dental - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Social Class
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in dental caries and fluorosis prevalence in 936 randomly selected life-long residents selected from public and private schools in Trois-Rivières (1.0 ppm F in 1987) and Sherbrooke (less than 0.1 ppm F), Que., Canada. Students, 11-17 years of age, were examined for dental caries using the National Institute for Dental Research criteria and for dental fluorosis using the Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis. Because of an inconsistent fluoridation history in Trois-Rivières, comparisons were carried out between two age strata: students 11-14 years of age who consumed for a longer duration suboptimally fluoridated water than those in the second stratum: students 15-17 years of age. Only public school students, 15-17 years of age, from Trois-Rivières had significantly lower mean filled surface and decayed, missing, and filled tooth surface (DMFS) scores (28 and 24%, respectively) than similar students in Sherbrooke. Among private school students, differences were not found, except in the youngest age group in Sherbrooke who had significantly lower mean DMFS than similar students from Trois-Rivières. The prevalence of fluorosis was 45.6% and 58.0% in Trois-Rivières public and private schools, respectively, and 31.1% and 30.1% in Sherbrooke public and private schools, respectively. The use of fluoride tablets was significantly associated with fluorosis. This study showed that water fluoridation benefitted students from public schools and that the risk factors for dental fluorosis were the use of fluoridated water and fluoride tablets.
PubMed ID
2276168 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis in seven- to 12-year-old children in northern Newfoundland and Forteau, Labrador.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206256
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 1998 Feb;64(2):118-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
A I Ismail
J G Messer
P J Hornett
Author Affiliation
School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-1078, USA.
Source
J Can Dent Assoc. 1998 Feb;64(2):118-24
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - prevention & control
Dental Fissures - epidemiology - therapy
Female
Fluorosis, Dental - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Pit and Fissure Sealants - therapeutic use
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
In 1993, a cross-sectional oral health survey of 739 randomly selected seven- to 12-year-old Canadian school children was conducted in Forteau (Labrador), Roddickton (northern Newfoundland), and Flower's Cove (northern Newfoundland) to determine the prevalence of dental caries and fluorosis. Children in grades two through six (n = 838) were selected to participate in the survey, which achieved a response rate of 88.2 per cent. Caries prevalence was estimated using modified World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (non-cavitated carious pits and fissures were coded separately from cavitated carious lesions). Fluorosis was measured using the Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis (TSIF). In-school examinations were carried out by three dentists using portable equipment. There was a significantly higher percentage of caries-free children in Forteau (17.6 per cent) than in Roddickton (7.1 per cent) or Flower's Cove (8.3 per cent). Less than 20 per cent of the children surveyed in all regions had fluorosis. When fluorosis was present, it was mostly of the "very mild" type. Children from Forteau had a significantly lower mean number of decayed permanent teeth than children from the two other regions (1.6 in Forteau, versus 2.7 in Roddickton and 3.4 in Flower's Cove). The mean number of sealed teeth was significantly higher in Forteau children (mean = 1.1) compared with children from Roddickton (mean = 0.3) and Flower's Cove (mean = 0.03). In Forteau children, the F/DMFS2 (non-cavitated carious lesions excluded) ratio was 57 per cent, compared to a ratio of 29 per cent in children from Roddickton and 25 per cent in children from Flower's Cove. Similarly, the mean number of non-cavitated carious pits and fissures were higher than cavitated tooth surfaces by a ratio of 1.5 to 1. The risk markers significantly associated with lower DMFS scores were the number of sealants, lower grade level, college or university education of parents, and residence in Forteau. However, dental caries is endemic in the region and there is a clear need for an accessible school- and community-based oral health promotion and treatment program. In conclusion, this survey found that sealants are effective in preventing dental caries.
PubMed ID
9509819 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions in a random sample of 7-9-year-old schoolchildren in Montreal, Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222993
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1992 Oct;20(5):250-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1992
Author
A I Ismail
J M Brodeur
P. Gagnon
M. Payette
D. Picard
T. Hamalian
M. Olivier
B J Eastwood
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1992 Oct;20(5):250-5
Date
Oct-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Dental Caries - diagnosis - epidemiology
Dental Fissures - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Observer Variation
Parents
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This report describes the prevalence of non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions in 911 randomly selected children in grades one through three on the Island of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The criteria for diagnosis were developed for a longitudinal epidemiological study of restorative treatment decisions by dentists practising under a provincial dental insurance program for children. The intra- and inter-examiner reliability correlation coefficients of the two examiners were excellent (Kappa > or = 0.80). The most frequent carious lesion found in the examined children were non-cavitated carious lesions (incipient) within 1.5 of the gingival line on smooth tooth surfaces, and stained or non-cavitated carious lesions on pits and fissures. Out of 911 children in the study, 19.6% had sealants. Children whose parents completed a university education had a significantly lower prevalence of non-cavitated and cavitated carious lesions and fillings, and a significantly higher mean number of sealants than children whose parents had only primary school education. Education status of the parents was a significant risk marker of children with high caries experience and these children had a significantly higher mean number of non-cavitated carious lesions. This study has found that non-cavitated carious lesions are significantly more prevalent than cavitated carious lesions in children.
PubMed ID
1424542 View in PubMed
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The risk of fluorosis in students exposed to a higher than optimal concentration of fluoride in well water.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213536
Source
J Public Health Dent. 1996;56(1):22-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
A I Ismail
J G Messer
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. ismaildl@ac.dal.ca
Source
J Public Health Dent. 1996;56(1):22-7
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Amelogenesis - drug effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Dental Enamel - pathology
Fluorides - adverse effects - analysis
Fluorosis, Dental - etiology
Humans
Incisor
Infant
Mandible
Maxilla
Newfoundland and Labrador
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
In December 1991 the residents of the community of Rigolet, Labrador, Canada, discovered that they were exposed to higher than 2.0 ppm fluoride in the drinking water from the new town well, which became operational in December 1983. In 1993 an investigation of the occurrence of fluorosis in children exposed to the high-fluoride water during different ages of life was carried out.
A dental examination for fluorosis was conducted using Pendrys' Fluorosis Risk Index. Out of 84 students in Rigolet, 74 were examined and the parents of 60 students agreed to be interviewed. Out of the 60 students, 48 lived all of their first six years of life in Rigolet.
Of the 48 children with life-long residence, the odds ratio of fluorosis on enamel zones that began forming during the first year of life was 8.31 (95% CI = 1.84, 38.59) for children exposed since birth or during the first year of life relative to those exposed after 1 year of age. The odds that a child had a maxillary central incisor with fluorosis were 5.69 (95% CI = 1.34, 24.15) times higher if exposure occurred during the first yea of life compared with exposure after 1 year of age. Only those exposed to the high-fluoride water during the first year of life developed fluorosis on the mandibular central incisors.
Within the limitations of this small population study, age relative to the date when the new water well became operational was a significant risk factor in development of fluorosis. The first year of life was a significant period for developing fluorosis on the mandibular and maxillary central incisors.
Notes
Comment In: J Public Health Dent. 1996 Winter;56(1):58667318
PubMed ID
8667313 View in PubMed
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Should the drinking water of Truro, Nova Scotia, be fluoridated? Water fluoridation in the 1990s.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220973
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Jun;21(3):118-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1993

11 records – page 1 of 2.